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BioMed Research International
Volume 2014, Article ID 580981, 15 pages
Research Article

Molecular Epidemiology and Genotyping of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Isolated in Baghdad

1Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Institute for Post Graduate Studies, University of Baghdad, 10070 Jadriyah, Baghdad, Iraq
2Emerging Bacterial Pathogens Unit, San Raffaele Scientific Institute (HSR), via Olgettina, 60 20132 Milano, Italy
3Institut Pasteur de la Guadeloupe, Abymes, 97183 Guadeloupe, France
4Ministry of Agriculture, Al Nidhal Street, Baghdad 5157, Iraq

Received 7 November 2013; Revised 17 January 2014; Accepted 18 January 2014; Published 26 February 2014

Academic Editor: Tomasz Jagielski

Copyright © 2014 Ruqaya Mustafa Ali et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Tuberculosis (TB) remains a major health problem in Iraq but the strains responsible for the epidemic have been poorly characterized. Our aim was to characterize the TB strains circulating in Bagdad (Iraq). A total of 270 Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) strains isolated between 2010 and 2011 from TB patients attending the Center of Chest and Respiratory diseases in Baghdad were analyzed by Spoligotyping. The analysis indicated that 94.1% of the isolates belong to known genotype clades: CAS 39.6%, ill-defined T clade 29.6%, Manu 7.4%, Haarlem 7%, Ural 4.1%, LAM 3.3%, X 0.7%, LAM7-TUR 0.7%, EAI 0.7%, S 0.7%, and unknown 5.9%. Comparison with the international multimarker database SITVIT2 showed that SIT 309 (CAS1-Delhi) and SIT1144 (T1) were the most common types. In addition, 44 strains were included in SITVIT2 database under 16 new Spoligotype International Types (SITs); of these, 6 SITs (SIT3346, SIT3497, SIT3708, SIT3790, SIT3791, and SIT3800) (n = 32 strains) were created within the present study and 10 were created after a match with an orphan in the database. By using 24-loci MIRU-VNTR-typing on a subset of 110 samples we found a high recent transmission index (RTI) of 33.6%. In conclusion, we present the first unifying framework for both epidemiology and evolutionary analysis of M. tuberculosis in Iraq.