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BioMed Research International
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 613890, 16 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/613890
Review Article

Creatine, L-Carnitine, and ω3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Supplementation from Healthy to Diseased Skeletal Muscle

1Department of Molecular Medicine and Laboratory for Motor Activities in Rare Diseases (LUSAMMR), University of Pavia, Via Forlanini 6, 27100 Pavia, Italy
2Applied Biotechnology Research Center, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, P.O. Box 19395-5487, Tehran, Iran
3Department of Experimental and Forensic Medicine, University of Pavia, Via Forlanini 2, 27100 Pavia, Italy
4Department of Drug Sciences, Medicinal Chemistry and Pharmaceutical Technology Section, University of Pavia, Via Taramelli 12, 27100 Pavia, Italy
5Maugeri Foundation IRCCS, Montescano Scientific Institute, Via Per Montescano 31, 27040 Montescano, Italy
6Center for Study and Research on Obesity, Department of Medical Biotechnology and Translational Medicine, University of Milan, Via Vanvitelli 32, 20129 Milan, Italy
7Human Nutrition Section, Health Sciences Department, University of Pavia, Azienda di Servizi alla Persona, Via Emilia 12, 27100 Pavia, Italy

Received 24 April 2014; Revised 19 July 2014; Accepted 6 August 2014; Published 28 August 2014

Academic Editor: Robert W. Grange

Copyright © 2014 Giuseppe D’Antona et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Myopathies are chronic degenerative pathologies that induce the deterioration of the structure and function of skeletal muscle. So far a definitive therapy has not yet been developed and the main aim of myopathy treatment is to slow the progression of the disease. Current nonpharmacological therapies include rehabilitation, ventilator assistance, and nutritional supplements, all of which aim to delay the onset of the disease and relieve its symptoms. Besides an adequate diet, nutritional supplements could play an important role in the treatment of myopathic patients. Here we review the most recent in vitro and in vivo studies investigating the role supplementation with creatine, L-carnitine, and ω3 PUFAs plays in myopathy treatment. Our results suggest that these dietary supplements could have beneficial effects; nevertheless continued studies are required before they could be recommended as a routine treatment in muscle diseases.