Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
BioMed Research International
Volume 2014, Article ID 618382, 15 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/618382
Review Article

Tamponade or Filling Effect: Changes of Forces in Myopic Eyes

1Eye Clinic, Department of Neurological and Vision Sciences, University of Brescia, Piazzale Spedali Civili 1, 25123 Brescia, Italy
2Eye Clinic, Istituto Clinico Humanitas, Via Manzoni 56, 20089 Milano, Italy
3Eye Clinic, Department of Health Sciences, University of Molise, Via de Santis, 86100 Campobasso, Italy

Received 24 January 2014; Accepted 22 June 2014; Published 2 July 2014

Academic Editor: Xun Xu

Copyright © 2014 Francesco Semeraro et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. N. Friedman and P. K. Kaiser, “Essentials of ophthalmology,” in Essentials of Ophthalmology, pp. 253–254, Elsevier, Philadelphia, Pa, USA, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  2. S. M. Steidl and R. C. Pruett, “Macular complications associated with posterior staphyloma,” American Journal of Ophthalmology, vol. 123, no. 2, pp. 181–187, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. M. T. Ashrafzadeh, C. L. Schepens, I. I. Elzeneiny, R. Moura, P. Morse, and M. F. Kraushar, “Aphakic and phakic retinal detachment&I. Preoperative findings,” Archives of Ophthalmology, vol. 89, no. 6, pp. 476–483, 1973. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. “Risk factors for idiopathic rhegmatogenous retinal detachment. The eye disease case-control study group,” The American Journal of Epidemiology, vol. 137, no. 7, pp. 749–757, 1993.
  5. S.-F. Cheng, C.-H. Yang, C.-H. Lee et al., “Anatomical and functional outcome of surgery of primary rhegmatogenous retinal detachment in high myopic eyes,” Eye, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 70–76, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. L. C. Glazer, W. F. Mieler, R. G. Devenyi, and T. C. Burton, “Complications of primary scleral buckling procedures in high myopia,” Retina, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 170–172, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. I. M. Fawcett, R. L. Williams, and D. Wong, “Contact angles of substances used for internal tamponade in retinal detachment surgery,” Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, vol. 232, no. 7, pp. 438–444, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. R. D. Sperduto, D. Seigel, J. Roberts, and M. Rowland, “Prevalence of myopia in the United States,” Archives of Ophthalmology, vol. 101, no. 3, pp. 405–407, 1983. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. A. Russo, F. Semeraro, M. R. Romano, R. Mastropasqua, R. Dell’omo, and C. Costagliola, “Myopia onset and progression: can it be prevented?” International Ophthalmology, vol. 34, no. 3, pp. 693–705, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  10. T. Y. Wong, A. Ferreira, R. Hughes, G. Carter, and P. Mitchell, “Epidemiology and disease burden of pathologic myopia and myopic choroidal neovascularization: an evidence-based systematic review,” American Journal of Ophthalmology, vol. 157, no. 1, pp. 9–25.e12, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  11. C. C. W. Klaver, R. C. W. Wolfs, J. R. Vingerling, A. Hofman, and P. T. V. M. de Jong, “Age-specific prevalence and causes of blindness and visual impairment in an older population: the Rotterdam study,” Archives of Ophthalmology, vol. 116, no. 5, pp. 653–658, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. C. Cedrone, C. Nucci, G. Scuderi, F. Ricci, A. Cerulli, and F. Culasso, “Prevalence of blindness and low vision in an Italian population: a comparison with other European studies,” Eye, vol. 20, no. 6, pp. 661–667, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. L. Xu, Y. Wang, Y. Li, T. Cui, J. Li, and J. B. Jonas, “Causes of blindness and visual impairment in urban and rural areas in Beijing: the Beijing Eye Study,” Ophthalmology, vol. 113, no. 7, pp. 1141.e1–1141.e3, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. A. Iwase, M. Araie, A. Tomidokoro, T. Yamamoto, H. Shimizu, and Y. Kitazawa, “Prevalence and causes of low vision and blindness in a Japanese adult population: the Tajimi Study,” Ophthalmology., vol. 113, no. 8, pp. 1354–1362, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. M. Yamada, Y. Hiratsuka, C. B. Roberts et al., “Prevalence of visual impairment in the adult Japanese population by cause and severity and future projections,” Ophthalmic Epidemiology, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 50–57, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. H. Buch, T. Vinding, and N. V. Nielsen, “Prevalence and causes of visual impairment according to World Health Organization and United States criteria in an aged, urban scandinavian population: the Copenhagen City Eye Study,” Ophthalmology, vol. 108, no. 12, pp. 2347–2357, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. M. R. Van Newkirk, “The Hong Kong vision study: a pilot assessment of visual impairment in adults,” Transactions of the American Ophthalmological Society, vol. 95, pp. 715–749, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. Y. Wang, L. Xu, and J. B. Jonas, “Prevalence and causes of visual field loss as determined by frequency doubling perimetry in urban and rural adult Chinese,” American Journal of Ophthalmology, vol. 141, no. 6, pp. 1078.e1–1086.e1, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. D. A. Atchison, C. E. Jones, K. L. Schmid et al., “Eye shape in emmetropia and myopia,” Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, vol. 45, no. 10, pp. 3380–3386, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. D. A. Atchison, N. Pritchard, K. L. Schmid, D. H. Scott, C. E. Jones, and J. M. Pope, “Shape of the retinal surface in emmetropia and myopia,” Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, vol. 46, no. 8, pp. 2698–2707, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. J. Meskauskas, R. Repetto, and J. H. Siggers, “Shape change of the vitreous chamber influences retinal detachment and reattachment processes: is mechanical stress during eye rotations a factor?” Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, vol. 53, no. 10, pp. 6271–6281, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. N. Saka, K. Ohno-Matsui, N. Shimada et al., “Long-term changes in axial length in adult eyes with pathologic myopia,” American Journal of Ophthalmology, vol. 150, no. 4, pp. 562–568, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. S. Duke-Elder, System of Ophthalmology, vol. 5 of Ophthalmic Optics and Refraction, Mosby, St. Louis, Mo, USA, 1970.
  24. T. Tokoro, Criteria for Diagnosis in Pathologic Myopia. Atlas of Posterior Fundus Changes in Pathologic Myopia, Springer, Tokio, Japan, 1998.
  25. B. J. Curtin, “The posterior staphyloma of pathologic myopia,” Transactions of the American Ophthalmological Society, vol. 75, pp. 67–86, 1977. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. H. E. Grossniklaus and W. R. Green, “Pathologic findings in pathologic myopia,” Retina, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 127–133, 1992. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. T. David, S. Smye, T. Dabbs, and T. James, “A model for the fluid motion of vitreous humour of the human eye during saccadic movement,” Physics in Medicine and Biology, vol. 43, no. 6, pp. 1385–1399, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. R. Repetto, J. H. Siggers, and A. Stocchino, “Mathematical model of flow in the vitreous humor induced by saccadic eye rotations: effect of geometry,” Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 65–76, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. A. Gentle, Y. Liu, J. E. Martin, G. L. Conti, and N. A. McBrien, “Collagen gene expression and the altered accumulation of scleral collagen during the development of high myopia,” The Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 278, no. 19, pp. 16587–16594, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. J. Sebag, “Age-related changes in human vitreous structure,” Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, vol. 225, no. 2, pp. 89–93, 1987. View at Google Scholar
  31. J. Sebag, “Vitreoschisis,” Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, vol. 246, no. 3, pp. 329–332, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  32. C. I. Phillips and J. G. Dobbie, “Posterior staphyloma and retinal detachment,” American Journal of Ophthalmology, vol. 55, no. 2, pp. 332–335, 1963. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. M. Takano and S. Kishi, “Foveal retinoschisis and retinal detachment in severely myopic eyes with posterior staphyloma,” American Journal of Ophthalmology, vol. 128, no. 4, pp. 472–476, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. T. Baba, K. Ohno-Matsui, S. Futagami et al., “Prevalence and characteristics of foveal retinal detachment without macular hole in high myopia,” American Journal of Ophthalmology, vol. 135, no. 3, pp. 338–342, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. J. Akiba, S. Konno, and A. Yoshida, “Retinal detachment associated with a macular hole in severely myopic eyes,” The American Journal of Ophthalmology, vol. 128, no. 5, pp. 654–655, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. B. Dugas, A. M. Bron, G. Minoyan, S. Aho, J. Berrod, and C. P. Creuzot-Garcher, “Primary vitrectomy for the treatment of retinal detachment in highly myopic eyes with axial length over 30 mm,” European Journal of Ophthalmology, vol. 23, no. 4, pp. 564–570, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. G. Panozzo and A. Mercanti, “Optical coherence tomography findings in myopic traction maculopathy,” Archives of Ophthalmology, vol. 122, no. 10, pp. 1455–1460, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. A. K. H. Kwok, T. Y. Y. Lai, and W. W. K. Yip, “Vitrectomy and gas tamponade without internal limiting membrane peeling for myopic foveoschisis,” British Journal of Ophthalmology, vol. 89, no. 9, pp. 1180–1183, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. Y. Ikuno, K. Sayanagi, M. Ohji et al., “Vitrectomy and internal limiting membrane peeling for myopic foveoschisis,” American Journal of Ophthalmology, vol. 137, no. 4, pp. 719–724, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. H. Kobayashi and S. Kishi, “Vitreous surgery for highly myopic eyes with foveal detachment and retinoschisis,” Ophthalmology, vol. 110, no. 9, pp. 1702–1707, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. J. U. Hwang, S. G. Joe, J. Y. Lee, J.-G. Kim, and Y. H. Yoon, “Microincision vitrectomy surgery for myopic foveoschisis,” British Journal of Ophthalmology, vol. 97, no. 7, pp. 879–884, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. D. Gaucher, B. Haouchine, R. Tadayoni et al., “Long-term follow-up of high myopic foveoschisis: natural course and surgical outcome,” American Journal of Ophthalmology, vol. 143, no. 3, pp. 455–462, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. B. Zheng, Y. Chen, Z. Zhao et al., “Vitrectomy and internal limiting membrane peeling with perfluoropropane tamponade or balanced saline solution for myopic foveoschisis,” Retina, vol. 31, no. 4, pp. 692–701, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. E. Ortisi, T. Avitabile, and V. Bonfiglio, “Surgical management of retinal detachment because of macular hole in highly myopic eyes,” Retina, vol. 32, no. 9, pp. 1704–1718, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. T. J. Wolfensberger, M. Gonvers, and E. Bovey, “Very long-term follow-up of retinal detachment due to macular hole treated with vitrectomy and air injection,” Retina, vol. 21, no. 6, pp. 678–681, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. G. W. Blankenship and S. Ibanez-Langlois, “Treatment of myopic macular hole and detachment: intravitreal gas exchange,” Ophthalmology, vol. 94, no. 4, pp. 333–336, 1987. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. T. J. Wolfensberger and M. Gonvers, “Long-term follow-up of retinal detachment due to macular hole in myopic eyes treated by temporary silicone oil tamponade and laser photocoagulation,” Ophthalmology, vol. 106, no. 9, pp. 1786–1791, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. S. Kuriyama, M. Matsumura, T. Harada, H. Ishigooka, and N. Ogino, “Surgical techniques and reattachment rates in retinal detachment due to macular hole,” Archives of Ophthalmology, vol. 108, no. 11, pp. 1559–1561, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. G. Ripandelli, V. Parisi, T. R. Friberg, A. M. Coppé, C. Scassa, and M. Stirpe, “Retinal detachment associated with macular hole in high myopia: using the vitreous anatomy to optimize the surgical approach,” Ophthalmology, vol. 111, no. 4, pp. 726–731, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. F. T. Chen, P. T. Yeh, C. P. Lin, M. S. Chen, and C. H. Yang, “Intravitreal gas injection for macular hole with localized retinal detachment in highly myopic patients,” Acta Ophthalmologica, vol. 89, no. 2, pp. 172–178, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. C.-N. Kuo, H.-K. Kuo, H.-J. Chang et al., “Comparison of primary gas tamponade and a vitrectomy for repair of macular holes with retinal detachment in highly myopic eyes,” Chang Gung Medical Journal, vol. 26, no. 8, pp. 578–585, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. I. Georgalas, C. Koutsandrea, and I. Ladas, “Intravitreal gas injection for macular hole with localized retinal detachment in highly myopic patients,” Acta Ophthalmologica, vol. 89, no. 4, pp. e380–e381, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  53. M. Soheilian, A. K. Ghaseminejad, S. Yazdani et al., “Surgical management of retinal detachment in highly myopic eyes with macular hole,” Ophthalmic Surgery Lasers and Imaging, vol. 38, no. 1, pp. 15–22, 2007. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. M. Hong, T. Wu, and S. Sheu, “Primary gas tamponade in the management of macular hole with retinal detachment in highly myopic eyes,” Journal of the Chinese Medical Association, vol. 74, no. 3, pp. 121–124, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. Y. Oshima, Y. Ikuno, M. Motokura, K. Nakae, and Y. Tano, “Complete epiretinal membrane separation in highly myopic eyes with retinal detachment resulting from a macular hole,” The American Journal of Ophthalmology, vol. 126, no. 5, pp. 669–676, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. R. Dell'Omo, F. Semeraro, G. Guerra et al., “Short-time prone posturing is well-tolerated and reduces the rate of unintentional retinal displacement in elderly patients operated on for retinal detachment,” BMC Surgery, vol. 13, supplement 2, article S55, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  57. H. Nakanishi, S. Kuriyama, I. Saito et al., “Prognostic factor analysis in pars plana vitrectomy for retinal detachment attributable to macular hole in high myopia: a multicenter study,” The American Journal of Ophthalmology, vol. 146, no. 2, pp. 198.e1–204.e1, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. C. Seike, S. Kusaka, K. Sakagami, and Y. Ohashi, “Reopening of macular holes in highly myopic eyes with retinal detachments,” Retina, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 2–6, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. S. Ishida, K. Yamazaki, K. Shinoda, S. Kawashima, and Y. Oguchi, “Macular hole retinal detachment in highly myopic eyes: ultrastructure of surgically removed epiretinal membrane and clinicopathologic correlation,” Retina, vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 176–183, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. M. Stirpe and R. G. Michels, “Retinal detachment in highly myopic eyes due to macular holes and epiretinal traction,” Retina, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 113–114, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. X. Li, W. Wang, S. Tang, and J. Zhao, “Gas injection versus vitrectomy with gas for treating retinal detachment owing to macular hole in high myopes,” Ophthalmology, vol. 116, no. 6, pp. 1182.e1–1187.e1, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. K. Kadonosono, F. Yazama, N. Itoh et al., “Treatment of retinal detachment resulting from myopic macular hole with internal limiting membrane removal,” The American Journal of Ophthalmology, vol. 131, no. 2, pp. 203–207, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. Y. Oie, K. Emi, G. Takaoka, and T. Ikeda, “Effect of indocyanine green staining in peeling of internal limiting membrane for retinal detachment resulting from macular hole in myopic eyes,” Ophthalmology, vol. 114, no. 2, pp. 303–306, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. R. F. Lam, W. W. Lai, B. T. O. Cheung et al., “Pars plana vitrectomy and perfluoropropane (C3F8) tamponade for retinal detachment due to myopic macular hole: a prognostic factor analysis,” American Journal of Ophthalmology, vol. 142, no. 6, pp. 938–944, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. A. Nishimura, M. Kimura, Y. Saito, and K. Sugiyama, “Efficacy of primary silicone oil tamponade for the treatment of retinal detachment caused by macular hole in high myopia,” The American Journal of Ophthalmology, vol. 151, no. 1, pp. 148–155, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. C. Scholda, M. Wirtitsch, R. Biowski, and M. Stur, “Primary silicone oil tamponade without retinopexy in highly myopic eyes with central macular hole detachments,” Retina, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 141–146, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. T. Avitabile, V. Bonfiglio, D. Buccoliero et al., “Heavy versus standard silicone oil in the management of retinal detachment with macular hole in myopic eyes,” Retina, vol. 31, no. 3, pp. 540–546, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. M. Mete, B. Parolini, E. Maggio, and G. Pertile, “1000 cSt silicone oil vs heavy silicone oil as intraocular tamponade in retinal detachment associated to myopic macular hole,” Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, vol. 249, no. 6, pp. 821–826, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. G. Ripandelli, A. M. Coppé, R. Fedeli, V. Parisi, D. J. D'Amico, and M. Stirpe, “Evaluation of primary surgical procedures for retinal detachment with macular hole in highly myopic eyes: a randomized comparison of vitrectomy versus posterior episcleral buckling surgery,” Ophthalmology, vol. 108, no. 12, pp. 2258–2264, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  70. M. Sasoh, S. Yoshida, Y. Ito, K. Matsui, S. Osawa, and Y. Uji, “Macular buckling for retinal detachment due to macular hole in highly myopic eyes with posterior staphyloma,” Retina, vol. 20, no. 5, pp. 445–449, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  71. G. P. Theodossiadis and P. G. Theodossiadis, “The macular buckling procedure in the treatment of retinal detachment in highly myopic eyes with macular hole and posterior staphyloma: mean follow-up of 15 years,” Retina, vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 285–289, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  72. F. Ando, N. Ohba, K. Touura, and H. Hirose, “Anatomical and visual outcomes after episcleral macular buckling compared with those after pars plana vitrectomy for retinal detachment caused by macular hole in highly myopic eyes,” Retina, vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 37–44, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  73. A. M. Joussen and D. Wong, “The concept of heavy tamponades-chances and limitations,” Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, vol. 246, no. 9, pp. 1217–1224, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  74. B. Kirchhof and D. Wong, Vitreo-retinal Surgery, Essentials in Ophthalmology, Springer, Berlin, Germany, 2007, http://www.springer.com/medicine/ophthalmology/book/978-3-540-33669-3. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  75. D. Wong and N. Lois, “Perfluorocarbons and semifluorinated alkanes,” Seminars in Ophthalmology, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 25–35, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  76. R. Williams and D. Wong, “The influence of explants on the physical efficiency of tamponade agents,” Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, vol. 237, no. 10, pp. 870–874, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  77. D. Wong, R. Williams, T. Stappler, and C. Groenewald, “What pressure is exerted on the retina by heavy tamponade agents?” Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, vol. 243, no. 5, pp. 474–477, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  78. H. Heimann, T. Stappler, and D. Wong, “Heavy tamponade 1: a review of indications, use, and complications,” Eye, vol. 22, no. 10, pp. 1342–1359, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  79. L. Quaranta, A. Katsanos, A. Russo, and I. Riva, “24-hour intraocular pressure and ocular perfusion pressure in glaucoma,” Survey of Ophthalmology, vol. 58, no. 1, pp. 26–41, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  80. H.-P. Heidenkummer, A. Kampik, and S. Thierfelder, “Experimental evaluation of in vitro stability of purified polydimethylsiloxanes (silicone oil) in viscosity ranges from 1000 to 5000 centistokes,” Retina, vol. 12, no. 3, supplement, pp. S28–S32, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  81. S. Rizzo, F. Genovesi-Ebert, C. Belting et al., “Long-term vitreous replacement with perfluorohexyloctane and silicone oil: preliminary reports of a multicentric study,” Ophthalmologica, vol. 219, no. 3, pp. 147–153, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  82. D. Tognetto, D. Minutola, G. Sanguinetti, and G. Ravalico, “Anatomical and functional outcomes after heavy silicone oil tamponade in vitreoretinal surgery for complicated retinal detachment: a pilot study,” Ophthalmology, vol. 112, no. 9, pp. 1574.e1–1574.e8, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  83. D. Sandner, E. Herbrig, and K. Engelmann, “High-density silicone oil (Densiron) as a primary intraocular tamponade: 12-month follow up,” Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, vol. 245, no. 8, pp. 1097–1105, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  84. J. B. Jonas, H. L. J. Knorr, R. M. Rank, and W. M. Budde, “Intraocular pressure and silicone oil endotamponade,” Journal of Glaucoma, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 102–108, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  85. S. Matić, SP. Suić, D. Biuk, M. Matić, J. Barać, and M. Vinković, “Influence of silicone oil tamponade after vitrectomy on intraocular pressure,” Collegium Antropologicum, vol. 37, supplement 1, pp. 227–235, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  86. K. Brosh, I. Strassman, and M. Seelenfreund, “High intraocular pressure in four vitrectomized eyes with intravitreal C3F8 without high altitude travel,” Eye, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  87. F. Rüfer, A. Kohlmann, C. Kandzia, A. Klettner, and J. Roider, “Influence of atmospheric pressure on postoperative decompensation of intraocular pressure in perfluorethane-filled eyes after vitrectomy,” Acta Ophthalmologica, vol. 91, no. 1, pp. e80–e81, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  88. H. Ayh, I. Tsui, and J.-P. Hubschman, “Pupillary block glaucoma after pars plana vitrectomy with air-fluid exchange in pseudophakic air-filled eye,” Ophthalmic Surgery Lasers and Imaging, vol. 9, pp. 1–13, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  89. R. Repetto, A. Tatone, A. Testa, and E. Colangeli, “Traction on the retina induced by saccadic eye movements in the presence of posterior vitreous detachment,” Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 191–202, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  90. W. J. Foster, N. Dowla, S. Y. Joshi, and M. Nikolaou, “The fluid mechanics of scleral buckling surgery for the repair of retinal detachment,” Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, vol. 248, no. 1, pp. 31–36, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  91. D. J. de Silva, K. S. Lim, and W. E. Schulenburg, “An experimental study on the effect of encircling band procedure on silicone oil emulsification,” British Journal of Ophthalmology, vol. 89, no. 10, pp. 1348–1350, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  92. F. Baino, “Scleral buckling biomaterials and implants for retinal detachment surgery,” Medical Engineering & Physics, vol. 32, no. 9, pp. 945–956, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  93. S. P. Azen, I. U. Scott, H. W. Flynn Jr. et al., “Silicone oil in the repair of complex retinal detachments: a prospective observational multicenter study,” Ophthalmology, vol. 105, no. 9, pp. 1587–1597, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  94. V. Tanner, M. Minihan, and T. H. Williamson, “Management of inferior retinal breaks during pars plana vitrectomy for retinal detachment,” British Journal of Ophthalmology, vol. 85, no. 4, pp. 480–482, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  95. A. Sharma, V. Grigoropoulos, and T. H. Williamson, “Management of primary rhegmatogenous retinal detachment with inferior breaks,” British Journal of Ophthalmology, vol. 88, no. 11, pp. 1372–1375, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  96. L. Wickham, M. Connor, and G. W. Aylward, “Vitrectomy and gas for inferior break retinal detachments: are the results comparable to vitrectomy, gas, and scleral buckle?” British Journal of Ophthalmology, vol. 88, no. 11, pp. 1376–1379, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  97. V. Martínez-Castillo, A. Verdugo, A. Boixadera, J. García-Arumí, and B. Corcóstegui, “Management of inferior breaks in pseudophakic rhegmatogenous retinal detachment with pars plana vitrectomy and air,” Archives of Ophthalmology, vol. 123, no. 8, pp. 1078–1081, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  98. K. Takeuchi, S. Kachi, E. Iwata, K. Ishikawa, and H. Terasaki, “Visual function 5 years or more after macular translocation surgery for myopic choroidal neovascularisation and age-related macular degeneration,” Eye, vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 51–60, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  99. A. Polito, M. Cereda, F. Romanelli, and G. Pertile, “Macular translocation with 360° retinotomy for management of retinal pigment epithelial tear: long-term results,” British Journal of Ophthalmology, vol. 95, no. 1, pp. 74–78, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  100. T. Oyagi and K. Emi, “Vitrectomy without scleral buckling for proliferative vitreoretinopathy,” Retina, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 215–218, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  101. R. C. Siqueira, C. V. M. C. Gomes, C. Dalloul, and R. Jorge, “Vitrectomy with and without scleral buckling for retinal detachment,” Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia, vol. 70, no. 2, pp. 298–302, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  102. H. S. Tan, M. Mura, S. Y. Lesnik Oberstein, and M. D. de Smet, “Primary retinectomy in proliferative vitreoretinopathy,” American Journal of Ophthalmology, vol. 149, no. 3, pp. 447–452, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  103. A. M. Joussen, S. Rizzo, B. Kirchhof et al., “Heavy silicone oil versus standard silicone oil in as vitreous tamponade in inferior PVR (HSO Study): Interim analysis,” Acta Ophthalmologica, vol. 89, no. 6, pp. e483–e489, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  104. M. R. Romano, T. Stappler, J. Marticorena et al., “Primary vitrectomy with Densiron-68 for rhegmatogenous retinal detachment,” Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, vol. 246, no. 11, pp. 1541–1546, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  105. F. Boscia, C. Furino, N. Recchimurzo, G. Besozzi, G. Sborgia, and C. Sborgia, “Oxane HD vs silicone oil and scleral buckle in retinal detachment with proliferative vitreoretinopathy and inferior retinal breaks,” Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, vol. 246, no. 7, pp. 943–948, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  106. S. Bopp, K. Lucke, and U. Hille, “Peripheral visual field loss after vitreous surgery for macular holes,” Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, vol. 235, no. 6, pp. 362–371, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  107. M. Paques, P. Massin, P. Y. Santiago, A. C. Spielmann, and A. Gaudric, “Visual field loss after vitrectomy for full-thickness macular holes,” American Journal of Ophthalmology, vol. 124, no. 1, pp. 88–94, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  108. S. D. Pendergast and B. W. McCuen II, “Visual field loss after macular hole surgery,” Ophthalmology, vol. 103, no. 7, pp. 1069–1077, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  109. C. A. Gass, C. Haritoglou, E. M. Messmer, M. Schaumberger, and A. Kampik, “Peripheral visual field defects after macular hole surgery: a complication with decreasing incidence,” The British Journal of Ophthalmology, vol. 85, no. 5, pp. 549–551, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  110. M. Ohji, N. Nao-I, Y. Saito, A. Hayashi, and Y. Tano, “Prevention of visual field defect after macular hole surgery by passing air used for fluid-air exchange through water,” American Journal of Ophthalmology, vol. 127, no. 1, pp. 62–66, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  111. P. Dillinger, H. Lägel, and U. Mester, “Comparative investigation of the etiology of visual field defects after epimacular surgery,” Klinische Monatsblätter für Augenheilkunde, vol. 219, no. 6, pp. 440–443, 2002. View at Google Scholar
  112. M. Winter, W. Eberhardt, C. Scholz, and A. Reichenbach, “Failure of potassium siphoning by Müller cells: a new hypothesis of perfluorocarbon liquid-induced retinopathy,” Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, vol. 41, no. 1, pp. 256–261, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  113. M. Doi and M. F. Refojo, “Histopathology of rabbit eyes with silicone-fluorosilicone copolymer oil as six months internal retinal tamponade,” Experimental Eye Research, vol. 61, no. 4, pp. 469–478, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  114. B. Schatz, Y. El-Shabrawi, A. Haas, and G. Langmann, “Adverse side effects with perfluorohexyloctane as a long-term tamponade agent in complicated vitreoretinal surgery,” Retina, vol. 24, no. 4, pp. 567–573, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  115. S. Chang, N. J. Zimmerman, T. Iwamoto, R. Ortiz, and D. Faris, “Experimental vitreous replacement with perfluorotributylamine,” American Journal of Ophthalmology, vol. 103, no. 1, pp. 29–37, 1987. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  116. S. Chang, J. R. Sparrow, T. Iwamoto, A. Gershbein, R. Ross, and R. Ortiz, “Experimental studies of tolerance to intravitreal perfluoro-n-octane liquid,” Retina, vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 367–374, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  117. C. Eckardt, U. Nicolai, M. Winter, and E. Knop, “Experimental intraocular tolerance to liquid perfluorooctane and perfluoropolyether.,” Retina, vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 375–384, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  118. J. Osterholz, M. Winter, J. Winkler et al., “Retinal damage by perfluorocarbon liquids—a question of specific gravity? Intraocular pressure peaks and shearing forces,” Klinische Monatsblatter für Augenheilkunde, vol. 226, no. 1, pp. 38–47, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  119. E. Stefánsson, “The therapeutic effects of retinal laser treatment and vitrectomy. A theory based on oxygen and vascular physiology,” Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica, vol. 79, no. 5, pp. 435–440, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  120. E. Stefánsson and M. B. Landers III., “How does vitrectomy affect diabetic macular edema?” American Journal of Ophthalmology, vol. 141, no. 5, p. 984, 2006, author reply 984–985. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  121. S. Charles, Vitreous Surgery, Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore, Md, USA, 2nd edition, 1987.
  122. N. D. Brourman, M. S. Blumenkranz, M. S. Cox, and M. T. Trese, “Silicone oil for the treatment of severe proliferative diabetic retinopathy,” Ophthalmology, vol. 96, no. 6, pp. 759–764, 1989. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  123. B. M. Glaser, P. A. D'Amore, R. G. Michels, A. Patz, and A. Fenselau, “Demonstration of vasoproliferative activity from mammalian retina,” The Journal of Cell Biology, vol. 84, no. 2, pp. 298–304, 1980. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  124. E. de Juan Jr., M. Hardy, D. L. Hatchell, and M. C. Hatchell, “The effect of intraocular silicone oil on anterior chamber oxygen pressure in cats,” Archives of Ophthalmology, vol. 104, no. 7, pp. 1063–1064, 1986. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  125. C. Wetterqvist, D. Wong, R. Williams, T. Stappler, E. Herbert, and S. Freeburn, “Tamponade efficiency of perfluorohexyloctane and silicone oil solutions in a model eye chamber,” British Journal of Ophthalmology, vol. 88, no. 5, pp. 692–696, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  126. R. L. Williams, V. R. Kearns, and A. C. Lo, “Novel heavy tamponade for vitreoretinal surgery,” Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, vol. 54, pp. 7284–7292, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  127. A. Russo, C. Costagliola, L. Delcassi et al., “Topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for macular edema,” Mediators of Inflammation, vol. 2013, Article ID 476525, 11 pages, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  128. K. Satchi and C. K. Patel, “Posterior chamber compartments demonstrated by optical coherence tomography, in silicone-filled eyes, following macular hole surgery,” Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, vol. 33, no. 6, pp. 619–622, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  129. O. Abouali, A. Modareszadeh, A. Ghaffariyeh, and J. Tu, “Numerical simulation of the fluid dynamics in vitreous cavity due to saccadic eye movement,” Medical Engineering and Physics, vol. 34, no. 6, pp. 681–692, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  130. R. Repetto, A. Stocchino, and C. Cafferata, “Experimental investigation of vitreous humour motion within a human eye model,” Physics in Medicine and Biology, vol. 50, no. 19, pp. 4729–4743, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  131. A. Stocchino, R. Repetto, and C. Cafferata, “Eye rotation induced dynamics of a Newtonian fluid within the vitreous cavity: the effect of the chamber shape,” Physics in Medicine and Biology, vol. 52, no. 7, article 016, pp. 2021–2034, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  132. R. I. Angunawela, A. Azarbadegan, G. William Aylward, and I. Eames, “Intraocular fluid dynamics and retinal shear stress after vitrectomy and gas tamponade,” Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, vol. 52, no. 10, pp. 7046–7051, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  133. J. Sebag, “Anomalous posterior vitreous detachment: a unifying concept in vitreo-retinal disease,” Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, vol. 242, no. 8, pp. 690–698, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  134. R. Uemoto, Y. Saito, S. Sato, A. Imaizumi, M. Tanaka, and K. Nakae, “Better success of retinal reattachment with long-standing gas tamponade in highly myopic eyes,” Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, vol. 241, no. 10, pp. 792–796, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  135. S. Joeres, B. Kirchhof, and A. M. Joussen, “PVR as a complication of rhegmatogeneous retinal detachment: a solved problem?” British Journal of Ophthalmology, vol. 90, no. 6, pp. 796–797, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  136. S. Feng, H. Chen, Y. Liu et al., “A novel vitreous substitute of using a foldable capsular vitreous body injected with polyvinylalcohol hydrogel,” Scientific Reports, vol. 3, article 1838, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  137. C. Schramm, M. S. Spitzer, S. Henke-Fahle et al., “The cross-linked biopolymer hyaluronic acid as an artificial vitreous substitute,” Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, vol. 53, no. 2, pp. 613–621, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  138. Y. Katagiri, T. Iwasaki, T. Ishikawa, N. Yamakawa, H. Suzuki, and M. Usui, “Application of thermo-setting gel as artificial vitreous,” Japanese Journal of Ophthalmology, vol. 49, no. 6, pp. 491–496, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus