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BioMed Research International
Volume 2014, Article ID 623805, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/623805
Research Article

Collagen Scaffolds with Controlled Insulin Release and Controlled Pore Structure for Cartilage Tissue Engineering

1Tissue Regeneration Materials Unit, International Centre for Materials Nanoarchitectonics, National Institute for Materials Science, 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044, Japan
2Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Graduate School of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8571, Japan

Received 13 December 2013; Accepted 20 January 2014; Published 25 February 2014

Academic Editor: Oh Hyeong Kwon

Copyright © 2014 Himansu Sekhar Nanda et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Controlled and local release of growth factors and nutrients from porous scaffolds is important for maintenance of cell survival, proliferation, and promotion of tissue regeneration. The purpose of the present research was to design a controlled release porous collagen-microbead hybrid scaffold with controlled pore structure capable of releasing insulin for application to cartilage tissue regeneration. Collagen-microbead hybrid scaffold was prepared by hybridization of insulin loaded PLGA microbeads with collagen using a freeze-drying technique. The pore structure of the hybrid scaffold was controlled by using preprepared ice particulates having a diameter range of 150–250 μm. Hybrid scaffold had a controlled pore structure with pore size equivalent to ice particulates and good interconnection. The microbeads showed an even spatial distribution throughout the pore walls. In vitro insulin release profile from the hybrid scaffold exhibited a zero order release kinetics up to a period of 4 weeks without initial burst release. Culture of bovine articular chondrocytes in the hybrid scaffold demonstrated high bioactivity of the released insulin. The hybrid scaffold facilitated cell seeding and spatial cell distribution and promoted cell proliferation.