Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
BioMed Research International
Volume 2014, Article ID 636491, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/636491
Research Article

Xanthan Gum as an Adjuvant in a Subunit Vaccine Preparation against Leptospirosis

Unidade de Biotecnologia, Centro de Desenvolvimento Tecnológico, Universidade Federal de Pelotas, 96010-900 Pelotas, RS, Brazil

Received 17 February 2014; Revised 11 April 2014; Accepted 11 April 2014; Published 7 May 2014

Academic Editor: Hajime Hisaeda

Copyright © 2014 Katia L. Bacelo et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. WHO, Human Leptospirosis: Guidance for Diagnosis Survillance and Control, WHO Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data, Geneve, Switzerland, 2003.
  2. P. N. Levett, “Leptospirosis,” Clinical Microbiology Reviews, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 296–326, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. W. N. Burnette, “Recombinant subunit vaccines,” Current Opinion in Biotechnology, vol. 2, no. 6, pp. 882–892, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. A. D. Odir, A. A. Grassmann, D. D. Hartwig, S. R. Félix, É. F. da Silva, and A. J. A. McBride, “Recombinant vaccines against leptospirosis,” Human Vaccines, vol. 7, no. 11, pp. 1215–1224, 2011. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. M. L. Coutinho, H. A. Choy, M. M. Kelley et al., “A ligA three-domain region protects hamsters from lethal infection by leptospira interrogans,” PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, vol. 5, no. 12, Article ID e1422, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. D. S. D. Lucas, P. A. Cullen, M. Lo, A. Srikram, R. W. Sermswan, and B. Adler, “Recombinant LipL32 and LigA from Leptospira are unable to stimulate protective immunity against leptospirosis in the hamster model,” Vaccine, vol. 29, no. 18, pp. 3413–3418, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. K. M. Forster, D. D. Hartwig, F. K. Seixas et al., “A conserved region of leptospiral immunoglobulin-like A and B proteins as a DNA vaccine elicits a prophylactic immune response against leptospirosis,” Clinical and Vaccine Immunoogy, vol. 20, no. 5, pp. 725–731, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  8. C. J. Clements and E. Griffiths, “The global impact of vaccines containing aluminium adjuvants,” Vaccine, vol. 20, supplement 3, pp. S24–S33, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. N. W. Baylor, W. Egan, and P. Richman, “Aluminum salts in vaccines—US perspective,” Vaccine, vol. 20, supplement 3, pp. S18–S23, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. I. W. Sutherland, “Novel and established applications of microbial polysaccharides,” Trends in Biotechnology, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 41–46, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. S. Mohd Sauid, J. Krishnan, T. H. Ling, and M. V. Veluri, “Enhancement of oxygen mass transfer and gas holdup using palm oil in stirred tank bioreactors with Xanthan solutions as simulated viscous fermentation broths,” BioMed Research International, vol. 2013, Article ID 409675, 9 pages, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  12. C.-J. Chiou, L.-P. Tseng, M.-C. Deng et al., “Mucoadhesive liposomes for intranasal immunization with an avian influenza virus vaccine in chickens,” Biomaterials, vol. 30, no. 29, pp. 5862–5868, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. A. Takeuchi, Y. Kamiryou, H. Yamada et al., “Oral administration of xanthan gum enhances antitumor activity through Toll-like receptor 4,” International Immunopharmacology, vol. 9, no. 13-14, pp. 1562–1567, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. S. Ishizaka, I. Sugawara, and T. Hasuma, “Immune responses to xanthan gum. I. The characteristics of lymphocyte activation by xanthan gum,” European Journal of Immunology, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 225–231, 1983. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. U. Bertram, M.-C. Bernard, J. Haensler, P. Maincent, and R. Bodmeier, “In situ gelling nasal inserts for influenza vaccine delivery,” Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy, vol. 36, no. 5, pp. 581–593, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. C. T. Vendruscolo, J. L. S. Vedruscolo, and A. S. Moreira, Process for Preparing a Xanthan Biopolymer, WO/2006/047845, Universidade Federal de Pelotas, Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária, 2005.
  17. G. Burdock, Encyclopedia of Food and Color Additives, CRC Press, New York, NY, USA, 3rd edition, 1997.
  18. FAO/WHO, “Compendium of food additive specifications. Addendum 7,” in Proceedings of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives 53rd Session, June 1999.
  19. A. S. Moreira, J. L. S. Vendruscolo, C. Gil-Turnes, and C. T. Vendruscolo, “Screening among 18 novel strains of Xanthomonas campestris pv pruni,” Food Hydrocolloids, vol. 15, no. 4–6, pp. 469–474, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. É. F. Silva, M. A. Medeiros, A. J. A. McBride et al., “The terminal portion of leptospiral immunoglobulin-like protein LigA confers protective immunity against lethal infection in the hamster model of leptospirosis,” Vaccine, vol. 25, no. 33, pp. 6277–6286, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. S. R. Félix, D. D. Hartwig, A. P. C. Argondizzo et al., “Subunit approach to evaluation of the immune protective potential of leptospiral antigens,” Clinical and Vaccine Immunology, vol. 18, no. 12, pp. 2026–2030, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. R. Weeratna, L. Comanita, and H. L. Davis, “CPG ODN allows lower dose of antigen against hepatitis B surface antigen in BALB/c mice,” Immunology and Cell Biology, vol. 81, no. 1, pp. 59–62, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. F. K. Seixas, É. F. da Silva, D. D. Hartwig et al., “Recombinant Mycobacterium bovis BCG expressing the LipL32 antigen of Leptospira interrogans protects hamsters from challenge,” Vaccine, vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 88–95, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. D. D. Hartwig, K. L. Bacelo, P. D. Oliveira et al., “Mannosylated LigANI produced in Pichia pastoris protects hamsters against leptospirosis,” Current Microbiology, vol. 68, no. 4, pp. 524–530, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  25. C. Pasare and R. Medzhitov, “Toll-dependent control mechanisms of CD4 T cell activation,” Immunity, vol. 21, no. 5, pp. 733–741, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. C. Pasare and R. Medzhitov, “Control of B-cell responses by Toll-like receptors,” Nature, vol. 438, no. 7066, pp. 364–368, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. C. T. Vendruscolo, A. S. Moreira, A. S. Souza, R. Zambiazi, and A. R. P. Scamparini, “Heteropolysaccharides produced by Xanthomonas campestris pv pruni C24,” in Hydrocolloids, K. Nishinari, Ed., pp. 187–191, Elsevier, Japan, 2000. View at Google Scholar
  28. J. M. Dow, A. E. Osbourn, T. J. Wilson, and M. J. Daniels, “A locus determining pathogenicity of Xanthyomonas campestris is involved in lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis,” Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions, vol. 8, no. 5, pp. 768–777, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. C. Bode, G. Zhao, F. Steinhagen, T. Kinjo, and D. M. Klinman, “CpG DNA as a vaccine adjuvant,” Expert Review of Vaccines, vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 499–511, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. I. Gursel, M. Gursel, K. J. Ishii, and D. M. Klinman, “Sterically stabilized cationic liposomes improve the uptake and immunostimulatory activity of CpG oligonucleotides,” Journal of Immunology, vol. 167, no. 6, pp. 3324–3328, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. D. M. Klinman, “Immunotherapeutic uses of CpG oligodeoxynucleotides,” Nature Reviews Immunology, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 249–258, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. R. Rankin, R. Pontarollo, S. Gomis et al., “CpG-containing oligodeoxynucleotides augment and switch the immune responses of cattle to bovine herpesvirus-1 glycoprotein D,” Vaccine, vol. 20, no. 23-24, pp. 3014–3022, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. S. M. Faisal, W. Yan, S. P. McDonough, and Y.-F. Chang, “Leptospira immunoglobulin-like protein A variable region (LigAvar) incorporated in liposomes and PLGA microspheres produces a robust immune response correlating to protective immunity,” Vaccine, vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 378–387, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. R. U. M. Palaniappan, S. P. McDonough, T. J. Divers et al., “Immunoprotection of recombinant leptospiral immunoglobulin-like protein A against Leptospira interrogans serovar pomona infection,” Infection and Immunity, vol. 74, no. 3, pp. 1745–1750, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. D. Dyondi, T. J. Webster, and R. Banerjee, “A nanoparticulate injectable hydrogel as a tissue engineering scaffold for multiple growth factor delivery for bone regeneration,” International Journal of Nanomedicine, vol. 8, pp. 47–59, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  36. F. Chellat, M. Tabrizian, S. Dumitriu et al., “In vitro and in vivo biocompatibility of chitosan-xanthan polyionic complex,” Journal of Biomedical Materials Research, vol. 51, no. 1, pp. 107–116, 2000. View at Google Scholar