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BioMed Research International
Volume 2014, Article ID 639058, 14 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/639058
Review Article

Impact of the Prolymphangiogenic Crosstalk in the Tumor Microenvironment on Lymphatic Cancer Metastasis

1Department of Ophthalmology, University of Cologne, Kerpener Straße 62, 50937 Cologne, Germany
2Cologne Excellence Cluster on Cellular Stress Responses in Aging-Associated Diseases (CECAD) and Center for Molecular Medicine Cologne (CMMC), University of Cologne, Joseph-Stelzmann-Straße 26, 50931 Cologne, Germany

Received 11 April 2014; Accepted 14 August 2014; Published 1 September 2014

Academic Editor: Zhen Chen

Copyright © 2014 Simona L. Schlereth et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Lymphangiogenesis is a very early step in lymphatic metastasis. It is regulated and promoted not only by the tumor cells themselves, but also by cells of the tumor microenvironment, including cancer associated fibroblasts, mesenchymal stem cells, dendritic cells, or macrophages. Even the extracellular matrix as well as cytokines and growth factors are involved in the process of lymphangiogenesis and metastasis. The cellular and noncellular components influence each other and can be influenced by the tumor cells. The knowledge about mechanisms behind lymphangiogenesis in the tumor microenvironmental crosstalk is growing and offers starting points for new therapeutic approaches.