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BioMed Research International
Volume 2014, Article ID 640321, 6 pages
Research Article

Sharp Turning and Corner Turning: Comparison of Energy Expenditure, Gait Parameters, and Level of Fatigue among Community-Dwelling Elderly

1Department of Physiotherapy, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Puncak Alam Campus, 42300 Puncak Alam, Selangor, Malaysia
2Communities of Research (CoRe), Humanities and Quality of Life, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia

Received 4 February 2014; Revised 19 April 2014; Accepted 12 May 2014; Published 28 May 2014

Academic Editor: Jacob J. Sosnoff

Copyright © 2014 Maria Justine et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


This study compares energy expenditure (EE), gait parameters (GP), and level of fatigue (LOF) between 5-minute walking with sharp turning (ST) and corner turning (CT). Data were obtained from 29 community-dwelling elderly (mean age, 62.7 ± 3.54 years). For 5 minutes, in ST task, participants walked on a 3-meter pathway with 2 cones placed at each end (180° turning), while in CT task, participants walked on a 6-meter pathway with 4 cones placed at 4 corners (90° turning). The physiological cost index, pedometer, and 10-point Modified Borg Dyspnoea Scale were used to measure EE (beats/min), GP (no of steps), and LOF, respectively. Data were analyzed by using independent -tests. EE during ST (0.62 ± 0.21 beats/min) was significantly higher than CT (0.48 ± 0.17 beats/min) ( ). GP (434 ± 92.93 steps) and LOF (1.40 ± 1.11) in ST were found to be lower compared to GP (463 ± 92.18 steps) and LOF (1.54 ± 1.34) in CT (All, ). Higher EE in ST could be due to the difficulty in changing to a 180° direction, which may involve agility and different turning strategies (step-turn or pivot-turn) to adjust the posture carefully. In CT, participants could choose a step-turn strategy to change to a 90° direction, which was less challenging to postural control.