Table 2: Urinary concentrations of parabens, BP3, and phthalate metabolites (µg/L or µg/g creatinine): geometric means (GM), percentiles, ranges, and positivity rates.

GM µg/L (µg/g creat.)Selected percentiles µg/L (µg/g creat.)Range µg/L (µg/g creat.)Positive samples (%)aLOD (µg/L)
5th25th50th75th95th

MP
 All ( )19.0 (16.9)1.1 (1.0)4.3 (3.6)16.1 (14.3)75.2 (61.1)462.6 (501.7)0.30–7576.0 (0.23–3712.0)100.00.16
 Male ( )10.1 (7.8)1.0 (1.0)3.3 (2.8)7.7 (5.1)26.9 (16.4)223.4 (263.5)0.30–2659.0 (0.23–2227.0)100.0
 Female ( )33.5 (33.5)***1.0 (1.5)11.0 (9.8)32.4 (32.1)115.1 (128.7)630.6 (612.7)0.37–7576.0 (0.28–3712.0)100.0
EP
 All ( )2.1 (1.8)0.1 (0.2)0.6 (0.5)1.7 (1.5)6.5 (5.7)67.7 (53.9)<LOD–887.3 (<LOD–1033.0)96.60.09
 Male ( )1.6 (1.3)0.1 (0.1)0.5 (0.4)1.3 (1.0)4.7 (3.5)41.4 (26.4)<LOD–887.3 (<LOD–592.3)95.9
 Female ( )2.6 (2.6)*0.1 (0.2)0.8 (0.7)1.9 (2.1)9.2 (8.8)83.1 (90.5)<LOD–452.8 (<LOD–1033.0)97.1
PP
 All ( )1.5 (1.3)<LOD (<LOD)0.2 (0.2)1.2 (1.0)9.3 (8.4)78.8 (89.2)<LOD–692.1 (<LOD–415.1)83.10.11
 Male ( )0.6 (0.5)<LOD (<LOD)0.1 (0.1)0.5 (0.4)2.2 (1.6)20.2 (15.0)<LOD–114.6 (<LOD–156.2)76.4
 Female ( )3.3 (3.3)***<LOD (<LOD)0.8 (0.6)3.3 (3.5)15.4 (19.6)116.5 (215.1)<LOD–692.1 (<LOD–415.1)89.1
BP
 All ( )ND (ND)<LOD (<LOD)<LOD (<LOD)<LOD (<LOD)0.9 (0.8)8.0 (8.5)<LOD–80.6 (<LOD–63.5)41.80.30
 Male ( )ND (ND)<LOD (<LOD)<LOD (<LOD)<LOD (<LOD)0.3 (0.2)4.9 (3.8)<LOD–19.4 (<LOD–12.4)23.6
 Female ( )ND (ND)***<LOD (<LOD)<LOD (<LOD)0.5 (0.5)1.7 (1.7)11.1 (10.3)<LOD–80.6 (<LOD–63.5)58.0
MEP
 All ( )37.6 (33.3)4.9 (5.7)16.0 (14.7)34.3 (30.6)88.5 (68.4)292.1 (251.8)2.23–1904.0 (2.73–860.9)100.00.28
 Male ( )40.2 (31.1)5.2 (5.2)15.6 (15.6)34.3 (34.3)93.9 (93.9)731.9 (731.9)2.65–1904.0 (2.65–1904.0)100.0
 Female ( )35.4 (35.4)4.9 (4.9)16.5 (16.5)34.5 (34.5)85.2 (85.2)216.9 (216.9)2.23–578.0 (2.23–578.0)100.0
MnBP
 All ( )31.3 (27.7)5.7 (7.1)15.5 (14.7)33.3 (26.1)63.1 (53.4)145.9 (112.6)2.00–235.6 (3.63–422.0)100.00.30
 Male ( )33.0 (25.5)6.7 (6.9)17.0 (12.1)34.8 (26.1)61.1 (46.9)150.4 (91.1)3.23–222.7 (3.63–143.1)100.0
 Female ( )29.8 (29.9)5.3 (8.6)14.9 (15.5)31.4 (26.1)63.4 (60.4)116.5 (126.7)2.00–235.6 (4.66–422.0)100.0
MiBP
 All ( )26.2 (23.3)5.9 (6.9)14.3 (12.4)24.3 (20.0)45.9 (38.5)154.4 (147.3)2.04–608.4 (3.09–473.1)100.00.37
 Male ( )24.9 (19.3)5.7 (5.4)13.5 (10.5)24.3 (17.2)43.4 (29.0)99.6 (99.7)2.46–504.9 (3.09–307.2)100.0
 Female ( )27.5 (27.5)6.2 (8.6)15.0 (14.3)24.6 (22.4)48.1 (50.5)169.5 (174.3)2.04–608.4 (5.93–473.1)100.0
MBzP
 All ( )5.5 (4.9)0.9 (1.2)2.9 (2.3)5.5 (4.4)10.3 (9.1)34.9 (28.5)<LOD–126.5 (<LOD–102.0)99.60.19
 Male ( )5.8 (4.5)1.0 (1.0)3.0 (3.0)5.8 (5.8)11.3 (11.3)40.5 (40.5)0.40–126.5 (0.65–102.0)100.0
 Female ( )5.2 (5.2)0.8 (0.8)2.6 (2.6)5.3 (5.3)10.1 (10.1)34.3 (34.3)<LOD–84.0 (<LOD–73.0)99.3
MEHP
 All ( )2.7 (2.4)1.1 (0.7)1.7 (1.5)2.7 (2.3)4.1 (4.0)8.7 (7.8)0.58–20.0 (0.51–46.5)100.00.19
 Male ( )3.0 (2.4)**1.3 (0.7)1.9 (1.5)3.0 (2.1)4.6 (3.6)8.7 (6.8)0.99–13.4 (0.51–9.7)100.0
 Female ( )2.5 (2.5)1.0 (0.7)1.5 (1.4)2.2 (2.3)3.8 (4.2)8.7 (8.5)0.58–20.0 (0.56–46.5)100.0
5-OH-MEHP
 All ( )8.6 (7.6)1.8 (2.0)4.7 (4.3)9.0 (6.8)15.3 (13.4)36.7 (35.1)0.31–113.0 (0.96–263.5)100.00.13
 Male ( )10.1 (7.8)**2.5 (2.0)5.6 (4.5)9.9 (7.3)19.4 (13.8)37.3 (33.4)1.33–59.3 (1.47–41.8)100.0
 Female ( )7.4 (7.4)1.2 (1.8)3.7 (4.1)7.9 (6.5)13.7 (12.2)37.4 (36.4)0.31–113.0 (0.96–263.5)100.0
5-oxo-MEHP
 All ( )5.8 (5.1)0.9 (1.4)3.1 (2.8)5.9 (4.8)11.2 (8.7)27.4 (23.4)0.29–94.7 (0.67–220.7)100.00.16
 Male ( )6.5 (5.0)1.4 (1.4)3.8 (2.7)6.7 (4.8)12.2 (9.0)26.9 (21.9)0.87–57.4 (0.67–36.8)100.0
 Female ( )5.3 (5.3)0.8 (1.4)2.9 (2.9)5.6 (4.9)10.2 (8.1)35.2 (26.6)0.29–94.7 (0.80–220.7)100.0
BP3
 All ( )1.3 (1.1)<LOD (<LOD)0.4 (0.3)1.3 (1.0)3.7 (3.1)32.2 (30.1)<LOD–662.8 (<LOD–414.2)82.80.20
 Male ( )1.1 (0.8)<LOD (<LOD)0.3 (0.2)0.9 (0.6)3.1 (2.0)34.5 (28.8)<LOD–662.8 (<LOD–414.2)82.1
 Female ( )1.4 (1.4)<LOD (<LOD)0.4 (0.4)1.7 (1.3)3.8 (4.4)32.7 (33.3)<LOD–140.0 (<LOD–141.3)83.3

samples above LOD (%).
; ** ; *** .