Table 1: Summary of Adiponectin as therapeutic target.

CompoundCategoryMain resultsPubblications

Caloric restrictionIncrease of adiponectin serum levels.
Decrease of the ratio of TNF to adiponectin.
Salas-Salvadó et al., 2006 [140], Weiss et al., 2006 [141]

Long-term physical exerciseSmall to moderate increase in adiponectin levels.
Short-term activity is not determinant.
Simpson and Singh, 2008 [142], Rokling-Andersen et al., 2007 [143]

Caloric restriction + physical exerciseIncrease of adiponectin serum levels.
Increase of mRNA of AdipoRs in muscle and adipose tissues, mRNA levels of Adiponectin in adipose tissues and in serum.
Rokling-Andersen et al., 2007 [143], Christiansen et al., 2010 [144]

Curcumin, capsaicin, and 6 gingerolAdiponectin inducerPromotion of adiponectin endogenous production.Yamazaki et al., 2008 [145]

Synthetic and natural productsAdiponectin inducerAnthocyanin enanches adiponectin secretion. Xanthohumol increases adiponectin levels and attenuates diabetes in mice. Rimonabant significantly elevates adiponectin and reduces waist circumference. Telmisartan increases plasma adiponectin levels. Benzafibrate increases adiponectin levels in adipocytes and in serum of mice. sulfatide increases adiponectin production in adipocytes. Catechins enhance the expression and secretion of adiponectin in dose and time dependent manner in adipocytes.Tsuda et al., 2004 [146], Nozawa, 2005 [147], Moriuchi et al., 2007 [148], Hiuge et al., 2007 [149], Bruun et al., 2007 [150]

MetforminAdiponectin inducerIncrease of adiponectin serum levels and reduction of BMI and insulin resistance.Adamia et al., 2007 [151]

StatinsAdiponectin inducerIncrease of adiponectin levels. Sahebkar, 2013 [152]

Thiazolidinedione (TZD)Adiponectin inducerIncrease of AdipoRs receptors in adipocytes and macrophages.
Increase of adiponectin secretion from adipocytes and of both serum adiponectin concentration and ratio of HMW/total adiponectin.
Tsuchida et al., 2005 [153]; Phillips et al., 2008 [154]; M. Liu and F. Liu, 2009 [155]

fAdiponectinRecombinant adiponectinCorrection of amino acids metabolism altered by high-fat diet.
Protection against injury in pig with myocardial ischemia-reperfusion through suppression of inflammation, apoptosis, and oxidative stress.
Liu et al., 2013 [156], Kondo et al., 2010 [157]

gAdiponectinRecombinant adiponectinDecrease of plasma free fatty acids levels in mice. Induction of weight reduction in mice on high/fat/sucrose diet.
Amelioration of atherosclerosis.
Fruebis et al., 2001 [31], Yamauchi et al., 2003 [158]

gAdiponectin fused to Fc fragmentRecombinant adiponectinImprove of the fasting glucose levels and of the tolerance to glucose in mice.Ge et al., 2010 [33]

ADP 355AdipoRs agonistSuppression of tumor growth in cancer cell lines and mice.Otvos et al., 2011 [159]

Natural compounds library (9 compounds validated)AdipoRs agonistsagonist demonstrated by in vitro tests.Sun et al., 2013 [160]

AdipoRonAdipoRs agonistAmelioration of diabetes in genetically obese rodents and prolongation of the shortness life span of rodents on high-fat diet.Okada-Iwabu et al., 2013 [161]