Table 1: Main lymphocyte types’ alterations in sepsis.

Lymphocyte typeRolesOutcomes in sepsisReferences

CD4+ T cells: positive feedback on antigen presenting cells.
: promoting downregulation.
Lack of a shift from to increases survival. [35]
: producing IL-17, IL-21, TNF-, and IFN-. lymphocyte count in survivors was higher. [52]
Treg: immunosuppressive activity.Treg lymphocyte counts higher in surviving patients [41]

CD8+ T cellsEffector cytotoxic cells.In survivors, CD8+ T lymphocytes showed a further drop on day 3 of follow-up.[36]

NK cells Effector cytotoxic activity and immunoregulatory function.CD69+, an activation marker, increases in nonsurvivors.
CD57+, a marker of long-lived and differentiated NK cells, shows higher percentage in nonsurvivors.
[72]

B cells Ability to differentiate into immunoglobulin secreting plasma cells.An inverse correlation between count and survival, but this relation affects heterogeneously the subsets.[23, 101]

Abbreviations: TH: T helper; IL: interleukin; TNF: tumor necrosis factor; IFN: interferon.