Collagen-Glycosaminoglycan Matrix Implantation Promotes Angiogenesis following Surgical Brain Trauma
Proliferating smooth muscle cells in vessel walls defined with α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA)+/Ki67+ immunoreactivity in the lesion boundary zone (LBZ) of surgical traumatic brain lesions with implantation of a collagen-glycosaminoglycan matrix on day 21 (D21). Representative photomicrographs (merged images) of immunofluorescence staining of representative brain sections from Sham (a), lesion (L) (b) and L+CG (c) rats on day 21 following surgical trauma. Immunoreactivity of α-SMA (green), which stains smooth muscle cells in vessel walls, and Ki67 (red), which stains proliferating cells. DAPI (diamidino-2-phenylindole) (blue), a classic nuclear counterstain for immunofluorescence. Scale bars in (a–c) represent 75 μm. Numbers of α-SMA+ (d), proliferative smooth muscle cells in vessels walls (Ki67+/α-SMA+) (e) from brains of the L+CG group on D7, D14, D21 and D28 after surgery in the lesion boundary zone (LBZ) and proliferative smooth muscle cells in vessels walls (Ki67+/α-SMA+) (f) intra-matrix zone (IMZ). Data are the mean ± SD. , , and , L and L+CG groups versus the Sham group; +, ++ and +++, L versus L+CG.
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