Collagen-Glycosaminoglycan Matrix Implantation Promotes Angiogenesis following Surgical Brain Trauma
Both endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells in vessel walls defined by CD31/α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA)+ immunoreactivity in the intra-matrix zone (IMZ) of surgical traumatic brain lesions with implantation of a collagen-glycosaminoglycan matrix on day 21 (D21). (a) Immunoreactivity of CD31 (green), an endothelial cell marker, and (b) α-SMA (red), which stains smooth muscle cells in vessel walls in the intra-matrix zone (IMZ) of the L+CG group. DAPI (diamidino-2-phenylindole) (blue), a classic nuclear counterstain for immunofluorescence, and merged image (c). (d) Numbers of endothelial cells (CD31+), (e) CD31+/α-SMA+ cells from brains of Sham, L, and L+CG groups on D7, D14, D21, and D28 after surgery in the LBZ. Data are the mean ± SD. , , and , L and L+CG groups versus the Sham group; +, ++ and +++, L versus L+CG.
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