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BioMed Research International
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 676572, 8 pages
Research Article

A Comparative Performance Analysis of Total PSA, Percentage Free PSA, PSA Velocity, and PSA Density versus the Detection of Primary Circulating Prostate Cells in Predicting Initial Prostate Biopsy Findings in Chilean Men

1Hospital Carabineros of Chile, Nuñoa, 7770199 Santiago, Chile
2Circulating Tumor Cell Unit, Faculty of Medicine, University Mayor, Las Condes, 7550224 Santiago, Chile
3Institute of Bio-Oncology, Providencia, 7500710 Santiago, Chile
4Faculty of Medicine, Diego Portales University, Manuel Rodríguez Sur 415, 8370179 Santiago, Chile

Received 1 March 2014; Revised 30 May 2014; Accepted 12 June 2014; Published 1 July 2014

Academic Editor: Zhenyu Jia

Copyright © 2014 Nigel P. Murray et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Introduction. PSA parameters have been used in an attempt to improve the diagnostic yield of prostate screening tests; the detection of primary malignant circulating prostate cells (CPCs) may improve the diagnostic yield of screening and therefore avoid unnecessary biopsies. Patients and Methods. Prospective study of all men undergoing initial prostate biopsy due to an elevated total serum PSA. Free percent PSA, PSA velocity, and PSA density were determined. Primary CPCs were detected using standard immunocytochemistry. A positive test for CPCs was defined as one cell PSA (+) P504S (+) in an 8 ml blood sample. Positive predictive and negative predictive values, specificity, and sensitivity were calculated for each test as well as the number of biopsies avoided and cancers missed. Results. 303 men participated in the study of whom 113/303 (37.3%) men had prostate cancer. Of the three PSA based parameters, free percent PSA was superior, sensitivity 70.8%, and specificity 67.4%. Primary CPCs detection had a sensitivity of 88.5% and a specificity of 88.4% avoiding 181 (59.7%) biopsies, detecting 93/95 (98%) of clinically significant cancers, and missing 13 (11.5%) low grade, small volume tumors. Conclusions. The use of primary CPCs as a sequential test could decrease the number of initial prostate biopsies missing those cancers which are treated by active observation.