Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
BioMed Research International
Volume 2014, Article ID 680985, 6 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/680985
Research Article

Adult Separation Anxiety and TCI-R Personality Dimensions in Patients with Anxiety, Alcohol Use, and Gambling: A Preliminary Report

1Institute of Psychiatry and Psychology, Catholic University of the Sacred Heart, Rome, Italy
2Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Section of Psychiatry, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy

Received 13 March 2014; Accepted 19 June 2014; Published 3 July 2014

Academic Editor: Sophia Achab

Copyright © 2014 Gino Pozzi et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. M. D. Ainsworth, “The development of infant-mother interaction among the Ganda,” in Determinants of Infant Behavior, B. M. Floss, Ed., John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY, USA, 1963. View at Google Scholar
  2. J. Bowlby, Attachment and Loss, vol. 2. Separation: Anxiety and Anger, Basic Books, New York, NY, USA, 1973.
  3. A. Bruschi, A. De Angelis, P. Grandinetti, M. Pascucci, L. Janiri, and G. Pozzi, “Separation anxiety disorder: evidence of literature and clinical implications,” Rivista di Psichiatria, vol. 47, no. 5, pp. 355–364, 2012. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. V. Manicavasagar, D. Silove, J. Curtis, and R. Wagner, “Continuities of separation anxiety from early life onto adulthood,” Journal of Anxiety Disorders, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 1–18, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. M. K. Shear, R. Jin, A. M. Ruscio, E. E. Walters, and R. C. Kessler, “Prevalence and correlates of estimated DSM-IV child and adult separation anxiety disorder in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication,” The American Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 163, no. 6, pp. 1074–1083, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. R. C. Kessler, P. Berglund, W. T. Chiu et al., “The US National Comorbidity Survey Replication (NCS-R): design and field procedures,” International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 69–92, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. D. M. Silove, C. L. Marnane, R. Wagner, V. L. Manicavasagar, and S. Rees, “The prevalence and correlates of adult separation anxiety disorder in an anxiety clinic,” BMC Psychiatry, vol. 10, article 21, pp. 1–7, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. B. Chelli, S. Pini, M. Abelli et al., “Platelet 18 kDa translocator protein density is reduced in depressed patients with adult separation anxiety,” European Neuropsychopharmacology, vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 249–254, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. B. Costa, S. Pini, C. Martini et al., “Ala147Thr substitution in translocator protein is associated with aduit separation anxiety in patients with depression,” Psychiatric Genetics, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 110–111, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. S. Mertol and T. Alkin, “Temperament and character dimensions of patients with adult separation anxiety disorder,” Journal of Affective Disorders, vol. 139, no. 2, pp. 199–203, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. S. Pini, M. Abelli, M. Mauri et al., “Clinical correlates and significance of separation anxiety in patients with bipolar disorder,” Bipolar Disorders, vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 370–376, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. L. Dell'Osso, C. Carmassi, L. Musetti et al., “Lifetime mood symptoms and adult separation anxiety in patients with complicated grief and/or post-traumatic stress disorder: a preliminary report,” Psychiatry Research, vol. 198, no. 3, pp. 436–440, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. American Psychiatric Association, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, American Psychiatric Publishing, Arlington, Va, USA, 5th edition, 2013.
  14. G. Loas, F. Atger, F. Perdereau et al., “Comorbidity of dependent personality disorder and separation anxiety disorder in addictive disorders and in healthy subjects,” Psychopathology, vol. 35, no. 4, pp. 249–253, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. C. R. Cloninger, D. M. Svrakic, and T. R. Przybeck, “A psychobiological model of temperament and character,” Archives of General Psychiatry, vol. 50, no. 12, pp. 975–990, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. American Psychiatric Association, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder, American Psychological Association, Washington, DC, USA, 4th edition, 1994.
  17. J. M. Cyranowski, M. K. Shear, P. Rucci et al., “Adult separation anxiety: psychometric properties of a new structured clinical interview,” Journal of Psychiatric Research, vol. 36, no. 2, pp. 77–86, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. V. Manicavasagar, D. Silove, R. Wagner, and J. Drobny, “A self-report questionnaire for measuring separation anxiety in adulthood,” Comprehensive Psychiatry, vol. 44, no. 2, pp. 146–153, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. G. Martinotti, L. Mandelli, M. di Nicola et al., “Psychometric characteristic of the Italian version of the Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised, personality, psychopathology, and attachment styles,” Comprehensive Psychiatry, vol. 49, no. 5, pp. 514–522, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. C. R. Cloninger, The Temperament and Character Inventory—Revised, Center for Psychobiology of Personality, Washington University, Washington, DC, USA, 1999.
  21. S. Pini, M. Abelli, K. M. Shear et al., “Frequency and clinical correlates of adult separation anxiety in a sample of 508 outpatients with mood and anxiety disorders,” Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, vol. 122, no. 1, pp. 40–46, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. C. R. Cloninger, A. H. Zohar, S. Hirschmann, and D. Dahan, “The psychological costs and benefits of being highly persistent: personality profiles distinguish mood disorders from anxiety disorders,” Journal of Affective Disorders, vol. 136, no. 3, pp. 758–766, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. E. Nyman, J. Miettunen, N. Freimer et al., “Impact of temperament on depression and anxiety symptoms and depressive disorder in a population-based birth cohort,” Journal of Affective Disorders, vol. 131, no. 1–3, pp. 393–397, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. S. Ball, J. Smolin, and A. Shekhar, “A psychobiological approach to personality: examination within anxious outpatients,” Journal of Psychiatric Research, vol. 36, no. 2, pp. 97–103, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. N. Jiang, T. Sato, T. Hara, Y. Takedomi, I. Ozaki, and S. Yamada, “Correlations between trait anxiety, personality and fatigue: study based on the Temperament and Character Inventory,” Journal of Psychosomatic Research, vol. 55, no. 6, pp. 493–500, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. X. Lu, Z. Chen, X. Cui et al., “Effects of temperament and character profiles on state and trait depression and anxiety: a prospective study of a Japanese youth population,” Depression Research and Treatment, vol. 2012, Article ID 604684, 8 pages, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. C. R. Cloninger, “A unified biosocial theory of personality and its role in the development of anxiety states,” Psychiatric Developments, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 167–226, 1986. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. P. Basiaux, O. le Bon, M. Dramaix et al., “Temperament and character inventory (TCI) personality profile and sub-typing in alcoholic patients: a controlled study,” Alcohol and Alcoholism, vol. 36, no. 6, pp. 584–587, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. O. Le Bon, P. Basiaux, E. Streel et al., “Personality profile and drug of choice; a multivariate analysis using Cloninger's TCI on heroin addicts, alcoholics, and a random population group,” Drug and Alcohol Dependence, vol. 73, no. 2, pp. 175–182, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. L. Janiri, G. Martinotti, T. Dario, F. Schifano, and P. Bria, “The gamblers' Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) personality profile,” Substance Use & Misuse, vol. 42, no. 6, pp. 975–984, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. S. Jiménez-Murcia, E. M. Álvarez-Moya, R. Stinchfield et al., “Age of onset in pathological gambling: clinical, therapeutic and personality correlates,” Journal of Gambling Studies, vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 235–248, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. M. Di Nicola, D. Tedeschi, M. Mazza et al., “Behavioural addictions in bipolar disorder patients: role of impulsivity and personality dimensions,” Journal of Affective Disorders, vol. 125, no. 1–3, pp. 82–88, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. C. R. Cloninger, “Temperament and personality,” Current Opinion in Neurobiology, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 266–273, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. C. R. Cloninger, D. M. Svrakic, and T. R. Przybeck, “Can personality assessment predict future depression? A twelve-month follow-up of 631 subjects,” Journal of Affective Disorders, vol. 92, no. 1, pp. 35–44, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus