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BioMed Research International
Volume 2014, Article ID 690103, 10 pages
Review Article

Current and Emerging Biomarkers of Cell Death in Human Disease

1College of Bioinformatics Science and Technology, Harbin Medical University, Harbin 150081, China
2College of Bioengineering, Henan University of Technology, Zhengzhou 450001, China

Received 28 March 2014; Accepted 17 April 2014; Published 18 May 2014

Academic Editor: Wencai Ma

Copyright © 2014 Kongning Li et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Cell death is a critical biological process, serving many important functions within multicellular organisms. Aberrations in cell death can contribute to the pathology of human diseases. Significant progress made in the research area enormously speeds up our understanding of the biochemical and molecular mechanisms of cell death. According to the distinct morphological and biochemical characteristics, cell death can be triggered by extrinsic or intrinsic apoptosis, regulated necrosis, autophagic cell death, and mitotic catastrophe. Nevertheless, the realization that all of these efforts seek to pursue an effective treatment and cure for the disease has spurred a significant interest in the development of promising biomarkers of cell death to early diagnose disease and accurately predict disease progression and outcome. In this review, we summarize recent knowledge about cell death, survey current and emerging biomarkers of cell death, and discuss the relationship with human diseases.