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BioMed Research International
Volume 2014, Article ID 714674, 10 pages
Review Article

Current and Future Lymphatic Imaging Modalities for Tumor Staging

1Department of Pharmacy, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Abbottabad 22060, Pakistan
2Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, 11 Bei San Huan Dong Lu, Chao Yang District, Beijing 100029, China
3University College of Pharmacy, University of the Punjab, Lahore 54000, Pakistan
4Institute of Biochemistry, University of Balochistan, Quetta 87300, Pakistan
5Department of Pharmacy, University of Sargodha, Sargodha 40100, Pakistan
6Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Dongzhimen Hospital, Dong Cheng District, Beijing 100700, China

Received 6 January 2014; Accepted 13 February 2014; Published 16 March 2014

Academic Editor: Robert J. Lee

Copyright © 2014 Ghulam Murtaza et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Tumor progression is supported by the lymphatic system which should be scanned efficiently for tumor staging as well as the enhanced therapeutic outcomes. Poor resolution and low sensitivity is a limitation of traditional lymphatic imaging modalities; thus new noninvasive approaches like nanocarriers, magnetic resonance imaging, positron-emission tomography, and quantum dots are advantageous. Some newer modalities, which are under development, and their potential uses will also be discussed in this review.