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BioMed Research International
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 716579, 6 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/716579
Review Article

Nutrition in Pelvic Radiation Disease and Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Similarities and Differences

Research & Development Division, Abbott Nutrition, 3300 Stelzer Road, Columbus, OH 43219, USA

Received 25 February 2014; Revised 9 May 2014; Accepted 19 May 2014; Published 28 May 2014

Academic Editor: Gianluca Terrin

Copyright © 2014 Tiffany DeWitt and Refaat Hegazi. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Due to the intestinal inflammation, tissue damage, and painful abdominal symptoms restricting dietary intake associated with both diseases, patients with intestinal pelvic radiation disease (PRD) or inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are at increased risk to develop protein calorie malnutrition and micronutrient deficiencies. In the current paper, we review the nutritional management of both diseases, listing the similar approaches of nutritional management and the nutritional implications of intestinal dysfunction of both diseases. Malnutrition is prevalent in patients with either disease and nutritional risk screening and assessment of nutritional status are required for designing the proper nutritional intervention plan. This plan may include dietary management, oral nutritional supplementation, and enteral and/or parenteral nutrition. In addition to managing malnutrition, nutrients exert immune modulating effects during periods of intestinal inflammation and can play a role in mitigating the risks associated with the disease activity. Consistently, exclusive enteral feeding is recommended for inducing remission in pediatric patients with active Crohn’s disease, with less clear guidelines on use in patients with ulcerative colitis. The field of immune modulating nutrition is an evolving science that takes into consideration the specific mechanism of action of nutrients, nutrient-nutrient interaction, and preexisting nutritional status of the patients.