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BioMed Research International
Volume 2014, Article ID 724718, 11 pages
Research Article

Evaluation of the Effect of Andrographolide on Atherosclerotic Rabbits Induced by Porphyromonas gingivalis

1Center of Periodontology Studies, Faculty of Dentistry, Universiti Teknologi Mara (UiTM), 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia
2Center of Paediatric Dentistry and Orthodontics Studies, Faculty of Dentistry, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia
3Center of Biomolecular Science, Faculty of Applied Science, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia

Received 8 April 2014; Revised 2 July 2014; Accepted 4 July 2014; Published 18 August 2014

Academic Editor: Kazuhiko Kotani

Copyright © 2014 Rami Al Batran et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Epidemiologic evidence has demonstrated significant associations between atherosclerosis and Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg). We had investigated the effect of andrographolide (AND) on atherosclerosis induced by Pg in rabbits. For experimental purpose, we separated thirty male white New Zealand rabbits into 5 groups. Group 1 received standard food pellets; Groups 2–5 were orally challenged with Pg; Group 3 received atorvastatin (AV, 5 mg/kg), and Groups 4-5 received 10 and 20 mg/kg of AND, respectively, over 12 weeks. Groups treated with AND showed significant decrease in TC, TG, and LDL levels () and significant increase in HDL level in the serum of rabbits. Furthermore, the treated groups (G3–G5) exhibited reductions in interleukins (IL-1β and IL-6) and C-reactive protein (CRP) as compared to atherogenicgroup (G2). The histological results showed that the thickening of atherosclerotic plaques were less significant in treated groups (G3–G5) compared with atherogenicgroup (G2). Also, alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) staining decreased within the plaques of atherogenicgroup (G2), while it was increased in treated groups (G3–G5). Lastly, groups treated with AV and AND (G3–G5) showed significant reduction of CD36 expression () compared to atherogenicgroup (G2). These results substantially proved that AND contain antiatherogenic activity.