BioMed Research International / 2014 / Article / Tab 1

Review Article

Neurotoxicants Are in the Air: Convergence of Human, Animal, and In Vitro Studies on the Effects of Air Pollution on the Brain

Table 1

Gender differences in the effects of diesel exhaust.


MDA (nmol/g)
 M4.7 ± 0.213.3 ± 0.3**
 F2.2 ± 0.1#4.2 ± 0.2*#
TNF-α (pg/mL)
 M1.4 ± 0.49.8 ± 1.9**
 F0.7 ± 0.11.7 ± 0.2*#

Male and female mice were exposed for 6 h to diesel exhaust (DE, 250–300 μg/m3) or filtered air (FA), and levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) were measured in the hippocampus, as markers of oxidative stress (lipid peroxidation) and neuroinflammation, respectively. Results indicate the mean (±SE) with . DE versus FA: * ; ** . M versus F: # (two-way ANOVA followed by Bonferroni test for multiple comparisons) (from [104]; Costa et al., unpublished results).

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