Neurotoxicants Are in the Air: Convergence of Human, Animal, and In Vitro Studies on the Effects of Air Pollution on the Brain
Gender differences in the effects of diesel exhaust.
4.7 ± 0.2
13.3 ± 0.3**
2.2 ± 0.1#
4.2 ± 0.2*#
1.4 ± 0.4
9.8 ± 1.9**
0.7 ± 0.1
1.7 ± 0.2*#
Male and female mice were exposed for 6 h to diesel exhaust (DE, 250–300 μg/m3) or filtered air (FA), and levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) were measured in the hippocampus, as markers of oxidative stress (lipid peroxidation) and neuroinflammation, respectively. Results indicate the mean (±SE) with . DE versus FA: *; **. M versus F: # (two-way ANOVA followed by Bonferroni test for multiple comparisons) (from ; Costa et al., unpublished results).
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