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BioMed Research International
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 757941, 11 pages
Research Article

Helicobacter pylori in Vegetables and Salads: Genotyping and Antimicrobial Resistance Properties

1Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
2Young Researchers and Elites Club, Islamic Azad University, Shahrekord Branch, P.O. Box 166, Shahrekord, Iran
3Intensive and Critical Care Nursing, Jiroft University of Medical Sciences, Jiroft, Iran
4Scientific Association of Veterinary Office, College of Veterinary Medicine, Islamic Azad University, Shahrekord Branch, P.O. Box 166, Shahrekord, Iran
5Department of Gynecology, Imam Reza Hospital, AJA University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

Received 3 February 2014; Revised 18 May 2014; Accepted 9 June 2014; Published 12 August 2014

Academic Editor: Gundlapally S. Reddy

Copyright © 2014 Emad Yahaghi et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


From a clinical and epidemiological perspective, it is important to know which genotypes and antibiotic resistance patterns are present in H. pylori strains isolated from salads and vegetables. Therefore, the present investigation was carried out to find this purpose. Three hundred eighty washed and unwashed vegetable samples and fifty commercial and traditional salad samples were collected from Isfahan, Iran. Samples were cultured and those found positive for H. pylori were analyzed using PCR. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed using disk diffusion method. Seven out of 50 (14%) salad and 52 out of 380 (13.68%) vegetable samples harbored H. pylori. In addition, leek, lettuce, and cabbage were the most commonly contaminated samples (30%). The most prevalent virulence genes were oipA (86.44%) and cagA (57.625). VacA s1a (37.28%) and iceA1 (47.45%) were the most prevalent genotypes. Forty different genotypic combinations were recognized. S1a/cagA+/iceA1/oipA+ (33.89%), s1a/cagA+/iceA2/oipA (30.50%), and m1a/cagA+/iceA1/oipA+ (28.81%) were the most prevalent combined genotypes. Bacterial strains had the highest levels of resistance against metronidazole (77.96%), amoxicillin (67.79%), and ampicillin (61.01%). High similarity in the genotyping pattern of H. pylori among vegetable and salad samples and human specimens suggests that vegetable and salads may be the sources of the bacteria.