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BioMed Research International
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 761264, 19 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/761264
Review Article

Oxidative Stress, Prooxidants, and Antioxidants: The Interplay

1Department of Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology, Uttar Pradesh Pandit, Deen Dayal Upadhayay Pashu Chikitsa Vigyan Vishwa Vidyalaya Evam Go-Anusandhan Sansthan (DUVASU), Mathura 281001, India
2Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Immunology, Uttar Pradesh Pandit, Deen Dayal Upadhayay Pashu Chikitsa Vigyan Vishwa Vidyalaya Evam Go-Anusandhan Sansthan (DUVASU), Mathura 281001, India
3Department of Animal Husbandry, Kuchaman, Rajasthan 341508, India
4Department of Veterinary Physiology, Uttar Pradesh Pandit, Deen Dayal Upadhayay Pashu Chikitsa Vigyan Vishwa Vidyalaya Evam Go-Anusandhan Sansthan (DUVASU), Mathura 281001, India
5Animal Resources Development Department, Pt. Nehru Complex, Agartala 799006, India
6Division of Pathology, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, Bareilly 243122, India

Received 19 May 2013; Revised 3 November 2013; Accepted 6 November 2013; Published 23 January 2014

Academic Editor: Afaf K. El-Ansary

Copyright © 2014 Anu Rahal et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Oxidative stress is a normal phenomenon in the body. Under normal conditions, the physiologically important intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) are maintained at low levels by various enzyme systems participating in the in vivo redox homeostasis. Therefore, oxidative stress can also be viewed as an imbalance between the prooxidants and antioxidants in the body. For the last two decades, oxidative stress has been one of the most burning topics among the biological researchers all over the world. Several reasons can be assigned to justify its importance: knowledge about reactive oxygen and nitrogen species production and metabolism; identification of biomarkers for oxidative damage; evidence relating manifestation of chronic and some acute health problems to oxidative stress; identification of various dietary antioxidants present in plant foods as bioactive molecules; and so on. This review discusses the importance of oxidative stress in the body growth and development as well as proteomic and genomic evidences of its relationship with disease development, incidence of malignancies and autoimmune disorders, increased susceptibility to bacterial, viral, and parasitic diseases, and an interplay with prooxidants and antioxidants for maintaining a sound health, which would be helpful in enhancing the knowledge of any biochemist, pathophysiologist, or medical personnel regarding this important issue.