Table 4: Antioxidant capacity of natural quinochalcones of C. tinctorius flowers during flowering.

Flowering stageAntioxidant activity
FRAPADPPHBChelating powerC
PrecarCarthPrecarCarthPrecarCarth

Bu103.23 ± 0.47a102.23 ± 0.08d2.25 ± 1.02c1.56 ± 0.17a11.09 ± 0.04c10.99 ± 0.22a
F98.26 ± 0.01b210.33 ± 0.25c2.98 ± 0.25b1.23 ± 0.19b11.01 ± 0.03c9.23 ± 0.17c
FF86.27 ± 0.10c500.29 ± 0.11b3.25 ± 0.58a1.02 ± 0.44c11.87 ± 0.07b9.55 ± 0.89b
Se56.22 ± 0.03d589.27 ± 0.19a3.58 ± 0.28a0.86 ± 0.11d12.02 ± 0.10a8.02 ± 0.27d

Synthetic antioxidants

BHT 16.00 ± 0.02
EDTA100.00 ± 0.01
Blank52.11 ± 0.01

Precar: precarthamin; Carth: carthamin. Bu: bud formation, F: flower formation, FF: full flowering, and Se: seed formation. AThe FRAP values were expressed in TE μM/mL and B,CIC50 values were expressed in g/mL. Data are reported as means ± SD ( ) and compared to control (C). ANOVA is followed by Duncan multiple range test ( ). Values in the same column with different superscripts (a–d) are significantly different at .