Table 5: Antibacterial and antifungal capacities of carthamin isolated from C. tinctorius flowers during flowering.

Flowering stagesBacterial strainsYeast strains

ATCC 14759
methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus E. coli ATCC 25218Staphylococcus aureus
ATCC 25923
Pseudomonas aeruginosa
ATCC 27853
IZMICIZMICIZMICIZMICIZMICIZMIC

Bu15.02 ± 0.11d151 ± 0.92d8.23 ± 0.47d199 ± 0.27d22.44 ± 0.22c143 ± 0.36dndnd14.02 ± 0.23b163 ± 0.58d9.20 ± 0.05c229 ± 0.71d
F19.01 ± 0.09c145 ± 0.84d12.03 ± 0.55c155 ± 0.12d24.88 ± 0.10b140 ± 0.77d6 ± 0.22b210 ± 0.64d13.22 ± 0.56c166 ± 0.88d10.22 ± 0.36b227 ± 0.86d
FF20.05 ± 0.04b142 ± 0.88d16.52 ± 0.08b149 ± 0.22d25.50 ± 0.04a140 ± 0.53d7.04 ± 0.55a215 ± 0.13d14.98 ± 0.47b162 ± 0.84d10.89 ± 0.55b225 ± 0.19d
Se22.03 ± 0.55a144 ± 0.70d18.56 ± 0.58a147 ± 0.55d25.89 ± 0.00a138 ± 0.99d7.69 ± 0.03a215 ± 0.55d15.23 ± 0.89a160 ± 0.55d12.03 ± 0.66a222 ± 0.33d

Synthetic standards

Gentamicin2225283523
Nystatin25

Bu: bud formation, F: flower formation, FF: full flowering, and Se: seed formation. nd: not detected. Data are reported as means ± SD ( ) and compared to control (C). ANOVA is followed by Duncan multiple range test ( ). Values in the same column with different superscripts (a–d) are significantly different at .