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BioMed Research International
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 765648, 11 pages
Research Article

A Novel Bioinformatics Method for Efficient Knowledge Discovery by BLSOM from Big Genomic Sequence Data

1Graduate School of Information Science, Nara Institute of Science and Technology, 8916-5 Takayama-cho, Ikoma-shi, Nara 630-0192, Japan
2Department of Bioscience, Nagahama Institute of Bio-Science and Technology, Nagahama-shi, Shiga-ken 526-0829, Japan
3Sino-Dutch Biomedical and Information Engineering School, Northeastern University, Shenyang, Liaoning 110004, China

Received 24 October 2013; Accepted 14 February 2014; Published 3 April 2014

Academic Editor: Md. Altaf-Ul-Amin

Copyright © 2014 Yu Bai et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


With remarkable increase of genomic sequence data of a wide range of species, novel tools are needed for comprehensive analyses of the big sequence data. Self-Organizing Map (SOM) is an effective tool for clustering and visualizing high-dimensional data such as oligonucleotide composition on one map. By modifying the conventional SOM, we have previously developed Batch-Learning SOM (BLSOM), which allows classification of sequence fragments according to species, solely depending on the oligonucleotide composition. In the present study, we introduce the oligonucleotide BLSOM used for characterization of vertebrate genome sequences. We first analyzed pentanucleotide compositions in 100 kb sequences derived from a wide range of vertebrate genomes and then the compositions in the human and mouse genomes in order to investigate an efficient method for detecting differences between the closely related genomes. BLSOM can recognize the species-specific key combination of oligonucleotide frequencies in each genome, which is called a “genome signature,” and the specific regions specifically enriched in transcription-factor-binding sequences. Because the classification and visualization power is very high, BLSOM is an efficient powerful tool for extracting a wide range of information from massive amounts of genomic sequences (i.e., big sequence data).