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BioMed Research International
Volume 2014, Article ID 780146, 9 pages
Research Article

Association between Positivity and Smoking Cessation

1Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, “V. Erspamer” School of Medicine, Sapienza University of Rome, Piazzale Aldo Moro 5, 00185 Rome, Italy
2Department of Psychology, Faculty of Medicine and Psychology, Sapienza University of Rome, Via dei Marsi 78, 00185 Rome, Italy
3Department of Clinical Medicine, Sapienza University of Rome, Viale dell’Università 37, 00185 Rome, Italy

Received 11 March 2014; Revised 30 April 2014; Accepted 7 May 2014; Published 22 May 2014

Academic Editor: Giuseppe La Torre

Copyright © 2014 Maria Caterina Grassi et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


The literature documents that personality characteristics are associated with healthy lifestyles, including smoking. Among positive traits, Positivity (POS), defined as a general disposition conducive to facing experience under a positive outlook has shown robust associations with psychological health. Thus, the present study investigated the extent to which POS is able to predict (i) relapse after quitting smoking and (ii) the desire to smoke again. All participants (481) had previously attended a Group Counselling Program (GCP) for Smoking Cessation (from 2005 through 2010). They were contacted through telephone interview. Among participants, 244 were ex-smokers (age: years , 52% female) and 237 were still-smokers (age: years ; 63.5% female). The association of POS with “craving to smoke” levels was assessed with multivariate linear regression analysis while controlling also for important differences in personality such as conscientiousness and general self-efficacy, as well as for gender and age. Results showed that POS was significantly and negatively associated with smoking status and with craving to smoke. Among covariates (i.e., conscientiousness, generalized self-efficacy), gender was associated with smoking status and with craving to smoke. Altogether these findings corroborate the idea that POS plays a significant role in sustaining individuals' efforts to quit smoking.