Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Retracted

BioMed Research International has retracted this article. The article was found to contain a substantial amount of material from the following published articles:(i)Szymański et al. [2], which is cited as reference .(ii)Wadas et al. [3], which is cited as reference .(iii)Carolyn and Ferdani [4], which is cited as reference .(iv)Smith et al. [5], which is cited as reference .

View the full Retraction here.

References

  1. A. Niccoli Asabella, G. L. Cascini, C. Altini, D. Paparella, A. Notaristefano, and G. Rubini, “The copper radioisotopes: a systematic review with special interest to 64Cu,” BioMed Research International, vol. 2014, Article ID 786463, 9 pages, 2014.
  2. P. Szymański, T. Fraczek, M. Markowicz, and E. Mikiciuk-Olasik, “Development of copper based drugs, radiopharmaceuticals and medical materials,” BioMetals, vol. 25, no. 6, pp. 1089–1112, 2012.
  3. T. Wadas, E. Wong, G. Weisman, and C. Anderson, “Copper Chelation Chemistry and its Role in Copper Radiopharmaceuticals,” Current Pharmaceutical Design, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 3–16, 2007.
  4. J. Carolyn and R. Ferdani, “Copper-64 Radiopharmaceuticals for PET Imaging of Cancer: Advances in Preclinical and Clinical Research,” Cancer Biotherapy & Radiopharmaceuticals, 2009.
  5. N. A. Smith, D. L. Bowers, and D. A. Ehst, “The production, separation, and use of 67Cu for radioimmunotherapy: A review,” Applied Radiation and Isotopes, vol. 70, no. 10, pp. 2377–2383, 2012.
BioMed Research International
Volume 2014, Article ID 786463, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/786463
Review Article

The Copper Radioisotopes: A Systematic Review with Special Interest to 64Cu

1Nuclear Medicine, University of Bari Aldo Moro, Piazza G. Cesare 11, 70124 Bari, Italy
2Nuclear Medicine, University of Catanzaro Magna Graecia, Viale Europa, Localitá Germaneto, 88100 Catanzaro, Italy

Received 23 December 2013; Accepted 18 April 2014; Published 7 May 2014

Academic Editor: Gianluca Valentini

Copyright © 2014 Artor Niccoli Asabella et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. S. Puig and D. J. Thiele, “Molecular mechanisms of copper uptake and distribution,” Current Opinion in Chemical Biology, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 171–180, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. I. Bertini, G. Cavallaro, and K. S. McGreevy, “Cellular copper management-a draft user's guide,” Coordination Chemistry Reviews, vol. 254, no. 5-6, pp. 506–524, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. T. J. Wadas, E. H. Wong, G. R. Weisman, and C. J. Anderson, “Copper chelation chemistry and its role in copper radiopharmaceuticals,” Current Pharmaceutical Design, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 3–16, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. P. Szymański, T. Frączek, M. Markowicz, and E. Mikiciuk-Olasik, “Development of copper based drugs, radiopharmaceuticals and medical materials,” Biometals, vol. 25, pp. 1089–1112, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  5. H. A. Williams, S. Robinson, P. Julyan, J. Zweit, and D. Hastings, “A comparison of PET imaging characteristics of various copper radioisotopes,” European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, vol. 32, no. 12, pp. 1473–1480, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. D. W. McCarthy, L. A. Bass, P. D. Cutler et al., “High purity production and potential applications of copper-60 and copper-61,” Nuclear Medicine and Biology, vol. 26, no. 4, pp. 351–358, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. F. Szelecsényi, Z. Kovács, K. Suzuki, K. Okada, T. Fukumura, and K. Mukai, “Formation of 60Cu and 61Cu via Co + 3He reactions up to 70 MeV: production possibility of 60Cu for PET studies,” Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, vol. 222, no. 3-4, pp. 364–370, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. F. Szelecsényi, K. Suzuki, Z. Kovács, M. Takei, and K. Okada, “Production possibility of 60,61,62Cu radioisotopes by alpha induced reactions on cobalt for PET studies,” Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, vol. 187, no. 2, pp. 153–163, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. P. Rowshanfarzad, M. Sabet, A. R. Jalilian, and M. Kamalidehghan, “An overview of copper radionuclides and production of 61Cu by proton irradiation of Znnat at a medical cyclotron,” Applied Radiation and Isotopes, vol. 64, no. 12, pp. 1563–1573, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. S. S. Das, S. Chattopadhyay, L. Barua, and M. K. Das, “Production of 61Cu using natural cobalt target and its separation using ascorbic acid and common anion exchange resin,” Applied Radiation and Isotopes, vol. 70, no. 2, pp. 365–368, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. T. Fukumura, K. Okada, F. Szelecsényi, Z. Kovács, and K. Suzuki, “Practical production of 61Cu using natural Co target and its simple purification with a chelating resin for61CU-ATSM,” Radiochimica Acta, vol. 92, no. 4–6, pp. 209–214, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. F. Szelecsényi, Z. Kovács, K. Suzuki et al., “Production possibility of 61Cu using proton induced nuclear reactions on zinc for PET studies,” Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry, vol. 263, pp. 539–546, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  13. A. H. Asada, S. V. Smith, S. . Chana et al., “Cyclotron production of 61Cu using natural Zn & enriched 64Zn targets,” in Proceedings of the 14th International Workshop on Targetry and Target Chemistry, vol. 1509 of AIP Conference Proceedings, pp. 91–95, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  14. F. Szelecsényi, G. F. Steyn, Z. Kovács, T. N. van der Walt, and K. Suzuki, “Comments on the feasibility of 61Cu production by proton irradiation of Znnat on a medical cyclotron,” Applied Radiation and Isotopes, vol. 64, no. 7, pp. 789–791, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. F. Szelecsényi, Z. Kovács, T. N. van der Walt, G. F. Steyn, K. Suzuki, and K. Okada, “Investigation of the Znnat(p,x)62Zn nuclear process up to 70 MeV: a new 62Zn/62Cu generator,” Applied Radiation and Isotopes, vol. 58, no. 3, pp. 377–384, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. T. Fukumura, K. Okada, H. Suzuki et al., “An improved 62Zn/62Cu generator based on a cation exchanger and its fully remote-controlled preparation for clinical use,” Nuclear Medicine and Biology, vol. 33, no. 6, pp. 821–827, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. D. W. McCarthy, R. E. Shefer, R. E. Klinkowstein et al., “Efficient production of high-specific-activity 64Cu using a biomedical cyclotron,” Nuclear Medicine and Biology, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 35–43, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  18. C. Alliot, N. Michel, A.-C. Bonraisin et al., “One step purification process for no-carrier-added 64Cu produced using enriched nickel target,” Radiochimica Acta, vol. 99, no. 10, pp. 627–630, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. F. Szelecsenyi, G. Blessing, and S. M. Qaim, “Excitation functions of proton induced nuclear reactions on enriched 61Ni and 64Ni: possibility of production of No-carrier-added 61Cu and 64Cu at a small cyclotron,” Applied Radiation and Isotopes, vol. 44, no. 3, pp. 575–580, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. H. Piel, S. M. Qaim, and G. Stocklin, “Excitation functions of (p, xn)-reactions on Ninat and highly enriched 62Ni: possibility of production of medically important radioisotope 62Cu on a small cyclotron,” Radiochimica Acta, vol. 57, pp. 1–5, 1992. View at Google Scholar
  21. A. Obata, S. Kasamatsu, D. W. McCarthy et al., “Production of therapeutic quantities of 64Cu using a 12 MeV cyclotron,” Nuclear Medicine and Biology, vol. 30, no. 5, pp. 535–539, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. K. R. Zinn, T. R. Chaudhuri, T.-P. Cheng, J. S. Morris, and W. A. Meyer Jr., “Production of no-carrier-added 64Cu from zinc metal irradiated under boron shielding,” Cancer, vol. 73, pp. 774–778, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. K. V. Vimalnath, A. Rajeswari, V. Chirayil et al., “Studies on preparation of 64Cu using (n,γ) route of reactor production using medium flux research reactor in India,” Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry, vol. 290, no. 1, pp. 221–225, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. F. Szelecsényi, G. F. Steyn, K. Suzuki et al., “Application of Zn+p reactions for production of copper radioisotopes for medical studies,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Nuclear Data for Science and Technology (ND '07), O. Bersillon, F. Gunsing, E. Bange et al., Eds., pp. 1395–1398, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  25. A. H. Al Rayyes and Y. Ailouti, “Routine simultaneous production of no-carrier-added high purity 64Cu and 67Ga,” Nukleonika, vol. 56, no. 4, pp. 259–262, 2011. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. S. G. Dolley, T. N. van der Walt, G. F. Steyn, F. Szelecsényi, and Z. Kovács, “The production and isolation of Cu-64 and Cu-67 from zinc target materialand other radionuclides,” Czechoslovak Journal of Physics, vol. 56, no. 4, pp. D539–D544, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. S. Monica and C. J. Anderson, “Molecular imaging of cancer with copper-64 radiopharmaceuticals and positron emission tomography (PET),” Accounts of Chemical Research, vol. 42, no. 7, pp. 832–841, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. S. V. Smith, D. J. Waters, and N. di Bartolo, “Separation of 64Cu from 67Ga waste products using anion exchange and low acid aqueous/organic mixtures,” Radiochimica Acta, vol. 75, no. 2, pp. 65–68, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. P. J. Kozempel, K. Abbas, F. Simonelli et al., “Preparation of 67Cu via deuteron irradiation of 70Zn,” Radiochimica Acta, vol. 100, pp. 419–423, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  30. S. C. Srivastava, “Paving the way to personalized medicine: production of some promising theragnostic radionuclides at Brookhaven national laboratory,” Seminars in Nuclear Medicine, vol. 42, no. 3, pp. 151–163, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. D. A. Ehst, N. A. Smith, D. L. Bowers et al., “Copper-67 production on electron Linacs-Photonuclear technology development,” in Proceedings of the 14th International Workshop on Targetry and Target Chemistry, vol. 1509 of AIP Conference Proceedings, pp. 157–161. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  32. D. G. Medvedev, L. F. Mausner, G. E. Meinken et al., “Development of a large scale production of 67Cu from 68Zn at the high energy proton accelerator: closing the 68Zn cycle,” Applied Radiation and Isotopes, vol. 70, no. 3, pp. 423–429, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. T. Katabuchi, S. Watanabe, N. S. Ishioka et al., “Production of 67Cu via the 68Zn(p,2p)67Cu reaction and recovery of 68Zn target,” Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry, vol. 277, no. 2, pp. 467–470, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. N. A. Smith, D. L. Bowers, and D. A. Ehst, “The production, separation, and use of 67Cu for radioimmunotherapy: a review,” Applied Radiation and Isotopes, vol. 70, no. 10, pp. 2377–2383, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  35. F. Szelecsényi, G. F. Steyn, S. G. Dolley, Z. Kovács, C. Vermeulen, and T. N. van der Walt, “Investigation of the 68Zn(p, 2p)67Cu nuclear reaction: new measurements up to 40 MeV and compilation up to 100 MeV,” Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, vol. 267, no. 11, pp. 1877–1881, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. T. Stoll, S. Kastleiner, Y. N. Shubin, H. H. Coenen, and S. M. Qaim, “Excitation functions of proton induced reactions on 68Zn from threshold up to 71 MeV, with specific reference to the production of 67Cu,” Radiochimica Acta, vol. 90, no. 6, pp. 309–313, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. J. Kozempel, K. Abbas, F. Simonelli et al., “A novel method for n.c.a. 64Cu production by the 64Zn(d, 2p)64Cu reaction and dual ion-exchange column chromatography,” Radiochimica Acta, vol. 95, no. 2, pp. 75–80, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. C. D. Gadaleta, L. Solbiati, V. Mattioli et al., “Unresectable lung malignancy: combination therapy with segmental pulmonary arterial chemoembolization with drug-eluting microspheres and radiofrequency ablation in 17 patients,” Radiology, vol. 267, no. 2, pp. 627–637, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  39. M. M. Ciccone, A. Niccoli-Asabella, P. Scicchitano et al., “Cardiovascular risk evaluation and prevalence of silent myocardial ischemia in subjects with asymptomatic carotid artery disease,” Vascular Health and Risk Management, vol. 7, pp. 129–134, 2011. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. A. Niccoli-Asabella, A. Notaristefano, M. G. Garribba, D. Rubini, C. Ferrari, and G. Rubini, “The PET/CT with 18F-fluorocholine in the diagnosis of gliomatosis cerebri type 2,” Recenti Progressi in Medicina, vol. 104, no. 2, pp. 73–75, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  41. A. Niccoli-Asabella, C. Altini, A. Notaristefano et al., “A retrospective study comparing contrast-enhanced computed tomography with 18F-FDG-PET/CT in the early follow-up of patients with retroperitoneal sarcomas,” Nuclear Medicine Communications, vol. 34, no. 1, pp. 32–39, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  42. D. Cafagna, G. Rubini, F. Iuele et al., “Whole-body MR-DWIBS vs. [18F]-FDG-PET/CT in the study of malignant tumors: a retrospective study,” La Radiologia Medica, vol. 117, no. 2, pp. 293–311, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. A. Niccoli-Asabella, A. Cimmino, C. Altini, A. Notaristefano, and G. Rubini, “18F-FDG positron emission tomography/computed tomography and Tc99m-MDP skeletal scintigraphy in a case of Erdheim-Chester disease,” Hellenic Journal of Nuclear Medicine, vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 311-312, 2011. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. D. Ma, F. Lu, T. Overstreet, D. E. Milenic, and M. W. Brechbiel, “Novel chelating agents for potential clinical applications of copper,” Nuclear Medicine and Biology, vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 91–105, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. X. Sun, M. Wuest, G. R. Weisman et al., “Radiolabeling and in vivo behavior of copper-64-labeled cross-bridged cyclam ligands,” Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, vol. 45, no. 2, pp. 469–477, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. A. Donsante, P. Johnson, L. A. Jansen, and S. G. Kaler, “Somatic mosaicism in Menkes disease suggests choroid plexus-mediated copper transport to the developing brain,” American Journal of Medical Genetics A, vol. 152, no. 10, pp. 2529–2534, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. K.-I. Inoue, H. Takano, A. Shimada, and M. Satoh, “Metallothionein as an anti-inflammatory mediator,” Mediators of Inflammation, vol. 2009, Article ID 101659, 7 pages, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. H. Wang and X. Chen, “Visualization of copper metabolism by 64CuCl2-PET,” Molecular Imaging and Biology, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 14–16, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. L. Evangelista, L. Mansi, and G. L. Cascini, “New issues for copper-64: from precursor to innovative pet tracers in clinical oncology,” Current Radiopharmaceuticals, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 117–123, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  50. C. N. Hancock, L. H. Stockwin, B. Han et al., “A copper chelate of thiosemicarbazone NSC 689534 induces oxidative/ER stress and inhibits tumor growth in vitro and in vivo,” Free Radical Biology and Medicine, vol. 50, no. 1, pp. 110–121, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. C. L. Ferreira, D. T. T. Yapp, S. Crisp et al., “Comparison of bifunctional chelates for 64Cu antibody imaging,” European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, vol. 37, no. 11, pp. 2117–2126, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. C. J. Anderson and R. Ferdani, “Copper-64 radiopharmaceuticals for PET imaging of cancer: advances in preclinical and clinical research,” Cancer Biotherapy and Radiopharmaceuticals, vol. 24, no. 4, pp. 379–393, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. Y. Zhang, H. Hong, H. Orbay et al., “PET imaging of CD105/endoglin expression with a 61/64Cu-labeled Fab antibody fragment,” European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, vol. 40, no. 5, pp. 759–767, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  54. J. E. Sprague, H. Kitaura, W. Zou et al., “Noninvasive imaging of osteoclasts in parathyroid hormone-induced osteolysis using a 64Cu-labeled RGD peptide,” Journal of Nuclear Medicine, vol. 48, no. 2, pp. 311–318, 2007. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. G. Hao, T. Fukumura, R. Nakao et al., “Cation exchange separation of 61Cu2+ from Conat targets and preparation of 61Cu-DOTA-HSA as a blood pool agent,” Applied Radiation and Isotopes, vol. 67, no. 4, pp. 511–515, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. A. Pfeifer, U. Knigge, J. Mortensen et al., “Clinical PET of neuroendocrine tumors using 64Cu-DOTATATE: First-in-Humans study,” Journal of Nuclear Medicine, vol. 53, pp. 1207–1215, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  57. M. Bourgeois, H. Rajerison, F. Guerard et al., “Contribution of [64Cu]-ATSM PET in molecular imaging of tumour hypoxia compared to classical [18F] -MISO—a selected review,” Nuclear Medicine Review, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 90–95, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. F. Dehdashti, M. A. Mintun, J. S. Lewis et al., “In vivo assessment of tumor hypoxia in lung cancer with 60Cu-ATSM,” European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, vol. 30, no. 6, pp. 844–850, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. K. S. C. Chao, W. R. Bosch, S. Mutic et al., “A novel approach to overcome hypoxic tumor resistance: Cu-ATSM-guided intensity-modulated radiation therapy,” International Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology Physics, vol. 49, no. 4, pp. 1171–1182, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. M. Belicchi-Ferrari, F. Bisceglie, C. Casoli et al., “Copper(II) and cobalt(III) pyridoxal thiosemicarbazone complexes with nitroprusside as counterion: syntheses, electronic properties, and antileukemic activity,” Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, vol. 48, no. 5, pp. 1671–1675, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. Y. Fujibayashi, H. Taniuchi, Y. Yonekura, H. Ohtani, J. Konishi, and A. Yokoyama, “Copper-62-ATSM: a new hypoxia imaging agent with high membrane permeability and low redox potential,” Journal of Nuclear Medicine, vol. 38, no. 7, pp. 1155–1160, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. F. Peng, X. Lu, J. Janisse, O. Muzik, and A. F. Shields, “PET of human prostate cancer xenografts in mice with increased uptake of 64CuCl2,” Journal of Nuclear Medicine, vol. 47, no. 10, pp. 1649–1652, 2006. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. I. Subramanian, Z. F. Vanek, and J. M. Bronstein, “Diagnosis and treatment of Wilson’s disease,” Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 317–323, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  64. M. T. Fodero-Tavoletti, V. L. Villemagne, B. M. Paterson et al., “Bis (thiosemicarbazonato) Cu-64 complexes for positron emission tomography imaging of Alzheimer's disease,” Journal of Alzheimer's Disease, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 49–55, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. M. Ikawa, H. Okazawa, T. Kudo, M. Kuriyama, Y. Fujibayashi, and M. Yoneda, “Evaluation of striatal oxidative stress in patients with Parkinson's disease using [62Cu]ATSM PET,” Nuclear Medicine and Biology, vol. 38, no. 7, pp. 945–951, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. M. Ikawa, H. Okazawa, K. Arakawa et al., “PET imaging of redox and energy states in stroke-like episodes of MELAS,” Mitochondrion, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 144–148, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. D. P. Holschneider and J.-M. I. Maarek, “Mapping brain function in freely moving subjects,” Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, vol. 28, no. 5, pp. 449–461, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. N. E. Basken, C. J. Mathias, A. E. Lipka, and M. A. Green, “Species dependence of [64Cu]Cu-Bis(thiosemicarbazone) radiopharmaceutical binding to serum albumins,” Nuclear Medicine and Biology, vol. 35, no. 3, pp. 281–286, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. Y. Fujibayashi, C. S. Cutler, C. J. Anderson et al., “Comparative studies of Cu-64-ATSM and C-11-acetate in an acute myocardial infarction model: ex vivo imaging of hypoxia in rats,” Nuclear Medicine and Biology, vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 117–121, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  70. A. B. Packard, J. F. Kronauge, E. Barbarics, S. Kiani, and S. T. Treves, “Synthesis and biodistribution of a lipophilic 64Cu-labeled monocationic copper(II) complex,” Nuclear Medicine and Biology, vol. 29, no. 3, pp. 289–294, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  71. N. Takahashi, Y. Fujibayashi, Y. Yonekura et al., “Copper-62 ATSM as a hypoxic tissue tracer in myocardial ischemia,” Annals of Nuclear Medicine, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 293–296, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  72. M. Isozaki, Y. Kiyono, Y. Arai et al., “Feasibility of 62Cu-ATSM PET for evaluation of brain ischaemia and misery perfusion in patients with cerebrovascular disease,” European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, vol. 38, no. 6, pp. 1075–1082, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  73. M. Maiti, K. Sen, S. Sen, and S. Lahiri, “Studies on stabilities of some human chorionic gonadotropin complexes with β-emitting radionuclides,” Applied Radiation and Isotopes, vol. 69, no. 2, pp. 316–319, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  74. M. Nahrendorf, H. Zhang, S. Hembrador et al., “Nanoparticle PET-CT imaging of macrophages in inflammatory atherosclerosis,” Circulation, vol. 117, no. 3, pp. 379–387, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  75. L. W. Locke, M. D. Chordia, Y. Zhang et al., “A novel neutrophil-specific PET imaging agent: cFLFLFK-PEG-64Cu,” Journal of Nuclear Medicine, vol. 50, no. 5, pp. 790–797, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus