A Proteomic View to Characterize the Effect of Chitosan Nanoparticle to Hepatic Cells: Is Chitosan Nanoparticle an Enhancer of PI3K/AKT1/mTOR Pathway?
The live fluorescent images of chitosan nanoparticles (red) taken by CCL-13 cells (a, c) and HepG2 cells (b, d). (a) and (b): cells without chitosan nanoparticles; (c) and (d): cells with chitosan nanoparticles at a concentration of 5 μg/mL for 12 h at 37°C; the red fluorescence was localized near by the cell nuclei. Those images represented merged images of DIC and red fluorescence. (600x, scale bar: 100 μm).