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BioMed Research International
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 821607, 5 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/821607
Research Article

D-Glucosamine Conjugation Accelerates the Labeling Efficiency of Quantum Dots in Osteoblastic Cells

1Department of Cariology, Nagasaki University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki 852-8588, Japan
2Biotechnology Division of Care Four Company Ltd., Kokura-Kitaku, Kitakyushu 802-0071, Japan
3Measurement Solution Research Center, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tosu, Saga 841-0052, Japan

Received 26 November 2013; Accepted 3 March 2014; Published 24 March 2014

Academic Editor: Hideo Kusaoke

Copyright © 2014 Kazunari Igawa et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Quantum dots (QDs) are useful imaging tools in the medical and biological fields due to their optical properties, such as a high fluorescence intensity, remarkable resistance to photobleaching, broad absorption spectra, and narrow emission spectra. This is the first study to investigate the uptake of carboxylated QDs conjugated with D-glucosamine (core size: approximately 3 nm, final modified size: 20–30 nm) into cultured osteoblastic cells. The QDs attached to the cell surface and were transported into the cytoplasm within approximately three hours of culture, whose process was clearly demonstrated using specific fluorescent staining of the cell membrane. Although the intranuclear distribution was not observed, a dramatic decrease in the transfer of quantum dots into the cytoplasm was recognized after approximately seven days of culture. Other interesting phenomena include the escape of the quantum dots from lysosomes in the cytoplasm, as confirmed by the merging of both QD fluorescence and specific fluorescent staining of lysosomes in the cytoplasm. These findings suggest that D-glucosamine conjugation enhances proton absorption in acid organelles and promotes the lysosomal escape of QDs.