Table 5: Traditional and contemporary applications of Foeniculum vulgare.

Sr. numberAilment/usePart/preparation usedLocalityReferences

1Mouth ulcerTender leaves, chewed and stuck on ulcerBasilicata, Italy[33]

2AperitifTender parts-raw or boiledRome, Italy[32]

3Gum disorderFruit and seed, used as a mouth wash for gum disorderCentral Serbia[35]

4InsomniaInfusion of tea leafBrazil[31]

5ConstipationSeeds, decoctionSouth Europe[127]
Seeds mixed with sugar Jammu and Kashmir, India[36]

6CancerLeaf and flower, aqueous infusion, drinkLoja, Ecuador [128]

7ConjunctivitisLeaf and flower, aqueous infusion, drinkLoja, Ecuador [128]

8GastritisLeaf, flower, aqueous infusion, drinkLoja, Ecuador [128]

9DiuresisRoot and seed, decoctionMiami, Florida, USA[42]

10Abdominal painsEach plant part, decoctionRome, Italy[30]
Leaf and seeds, infusion Northern Badia, Jordan,[39]
Leaves, paste Manisa, Turkey[43]

11ColdFruits and floral tops, decoctionRome, Italy[30]

12RefreshingRoots/whole plant, decoction Rome, Italy[30]

13Swollen stomachLeaves, decoction with a little honeyRome, Italy[129]

14Hair growSeed oilMiddle Navarra[130]

15AntiemeticFruit, simple powderNortheastern Majorcan area[47]

16Antihypertensive and Anti-cholesterolemicLeaf directly chewednorth-eastern Majorcan area[47]

17DepurativeLeaf and stem, comestibleIberian Peninsula, Spain[40]

18HypnoticSeed, leaf, and stem, infusion and edibleNorth Iran[24]

19DiarrhoeaSeeds, roots, and fresh leavesNorthern Portugal[28]
Seeds grounded with Root tubers of Hemidesmus indicus and the paste taken with jaggery twice a day for three days Bhandara, Maharashtra, India[131]

20Kidney ailmentsAerial part, infusion Alto, Bolivia[34]
Seed, decoctionGujranwala, Pakistan[132]

21Colic in childrenLeaf and fruit, infusionBrazil[133]

22Irritable colonLeaf and seeds, infusion Northern Badia, Jordan,[39]

23GastralgiaLeaf, decoctionsouthern Spain[29]

24PurgativeSeed, infusion and edibleGujranwala, Pakistan[132]

25Laxative Seed, infusion and edibleGujranwala, Pakistan[132]

26Liver painSeedPernambuco, Northeast Brazil[133]

27MosquitocidalRoot boiled and drunk as teaSomali Region, Ethiopia[41]

28ArthritisLeaf, an infusion made from the leaves is drunkSouth Africa[37]

29Fever Leaf, an infusion made from the leaves is drunkSouth Africa[37]

30Fat deduction Green fruit is chewed to reduce fatSouth Africa[37]

31LeucorrhoeaA mixture of its 100 g seed powder, 200 g seed powder of Papaver somniferum, 100 g fruit powder of Coriander sativum, and 200 g of sugar is prepared and 50 g of this mixture is taken by the tribal ladies early in the morningRajasthan, India[26]

32Problem of repeated abortionsMixture of its 50 g seed powder, 50 g fruit powder of Trapa natans, and 50 g sugar is given daily to pregnant ladies Rajasthan, India[26]

33Digestive systemFruits, decoctionBasilicata, Italy[33]
Seed, decoction (drink one tea cup after food)Balikesir, Turkey[134]
Whole plantWestern cape of South Africa[135]
Fruit, powder for digestive ailments Middle, West, and South Bosnia[136]
Seeds, decoctionSouth Europe[127]
Seeds, roots, and fresh leavesNorthern Portugal.[28]
Seed, decoctionSouthern Spain[29]

34CarminativeTender parts, raw or boiledRome, Italy[32]
Whole plantWestern cape of South Africa[135]
Seeds, decoctionSouth Europe[127]
Seed, leaf, and stem, infusion and edibleNorth Iran[24]
Leaves and/or fruits South Africa[27]

35DiureticTender parts, raw or boiledRome, Italy[32]
Whole plantWestern cape of South Africa[135]
Seeds, decoctionSouth-Europe[127]
Seeds, roots, and fresh leavesNorthern Portugal.[28]
Leaf, an infusion made from the leaves is drunkSouth Africa[37]

36EmmenagogueAerial part, raw with carrotRome, Italy[32]
Fruit, simple powderNorth-eastern Majorcan area[47]
Seed Haryana, India[137]

37Milk stimulant in pregnant women (Galactagogue)Leaf, an infusion made from the leaves is drunkSouth Africa[37]
Fruits, as condiment or chewedRome, Italy[32]
Fruit, simple powdernorth-eastern Majorcan area[47]
Aerial part-infusion Alto, Bolivia[34]

38Gingival woundFruit-pasteUttarakhand, India[138]
Whole plant, decoctionAndalusia, Spain[29]

39Eye blurry and itchingAerial parts, inhaled into eyesBalikesir, Turkey[134]
Seeds, roots, and leavesNorthern Portugal[28]
Seed, infusion, edibleGujranwala, Pakistan[132]
Leaves and/or fruitsSouth Africa[27]

40CoughWhole plant, oral infusionGuerrero, Mexico[44]
Whole plant, decoctionSouthern Spain[29]
Whole plantWestern cape of South Africa[135]

41StomachacheWhole plant, oral infusionGuerrero, Mexico[44]
Fruit Middle Navarra[130]
Seed decoction is used against stomach acheLiguria, Italy[45]
Seed, leaf, and stem-infusion, edibleNorth Iran[24]

42Stress removalApical shoots is used as sedative for childrenLiguria, Italy[45]
Southern Punjab, Pakistan[25]

43FlatulenceLeaf and fruit, infusionBrazil[133]
Leaf and seeds, infusionNorthern Badia, Jordan,[39]
Fresh fruit, decoctionNorth Bengal, India[38]