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BioMed Research International
Volume 2014, Article ID 848293, 7 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/848293
Research Article

In Vitro and In Vivo Leishmanicidal Activity of Astronium fraxinifolium (Schott) and Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng against Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis

1Departamento de Análises Clínicas e Toxicológicas, Faculdade de Farmácia, Universidade Federal do Ceará (UFC), Rua Capitão Francisco Pedro 1210, 60430-370 Fortaleza, CE, Brazil
2Departamento de Patologia e Medicina Legal, Faculdade de Medicina, UFC, Rua Monsenhor Furtado S/N, 60430-350 Fortaleza, CE, Brazil
3Departamento de Química, Universidade Estadual do Ceará, Avenida Paranjana 1700, 60000-001 Fortaleza, CE, Brazil
4Departamento de Farmácia, Faculdade de Farmácia, UFC, Rua Capitão Francisco Pedro 1210, 60430-370 Fortaleza, CE, Brazil

Received 20 February 2014; Accepted 20 March 2014; Published 16 April 2014

Academic Editor: José Carlos Tavares Carvalho

Copyright © 2014 Silvio César Gomes de Lima et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

The aim of the present work was to evaluate antileishmanial activity of Astronium fraxinifolium and Plectranthus amboinicus. For the in vitro tests, essential oil of P. amboinicus (OEPA) and ethanolic extracts from A. fraxinifolium (EEAF) were incubated with 106  promastigotes of L. (Viannia) braziliensis. The OEPA was able to reduce the parasite growth after 48 h; nonetheless, all the EEAFs could totally abolish the parasite growth. For the in vivo studies, BALB/c mice were infected subcutaneously (s.c.) with 107  L. braziliensis promastigotes. Treatment was done by administering OEPA intralesionally (i.l.) for 14 days. No difference was found in lesion thickness when those animals were compared with the untreated animals. Further, golden hamsters were infected s.c. with 106  L. braziliensis promastigotes. The first protocol of treatment consisted of ethanolic leaf extract from A. fraxinifolium (ELEAF) administered i.l. for 4 days and a booster dose at the 7th day. The animals showed a significant reduction of lesion thickness in the 6th week, but it was not comparable to the animals treated with Glucantime. The second protocol consisted of 15 daily intralesional injections. The profiles of lesion thickness were similar to the standard treatment. In conclusion, in vivo studies showed a high efficacy when the infected animals were intralesionally treated with leaf ethanolic extract from A. fraxinifolium.