BioMed Research International / 2014 / Article / Tab 2

Review Article

A Review on Plants Used for Improvement of Sexual Performance and Virility

Table 2

A list of few of the various popular herbs with ehtnopharmacological backing for being used as aphrodisiac. The table also describes the possible mechanism of action of one or more constitutent isolated from them.

Serial numberBiological sourcePart usedExtract used Mechanism of actionReferences

1Aframomum Melegueta
Roscoe (Zingiberaceae)
FruitsAqueous extractsImprovement of sexual behaviour[114]
2Asparagus racemosus Willd. (Liliaceae)RootsAqueous extractsImprovement of sexual behaviour[115]
3Allium tuberosum Rottl. ex Spreng
(Liliaceae)
SeedsButanolic extractImprovement of sexual behaviour[116]
4Alpinia calcarata Roscoe (Zingiberaceae)RhizomesHot Aqueous extractIncrease of sexual behaviour
And testosterone
[117]
5Argeria nervosa syn. A. speciosa Sweet
(Convolvulaceae)
Fresh leaves, roots and flowersAqueous, ethanol, hexane extractImprovement of sexual behaviour[118]
6Aspidosperma ulei Markgr. (Apocyanaceae)RootAlkaloidal rich fractionIncrease penile erection[119]
7Asteracantha longifolia Nees (Syn) (Acanthaceae)SeedsEthanolic extractImprovement of sexual behaviour[120]
8Anacyclus pyrethrum DC (Compositae)RootAqueous extract,
Ethanolic extract
Improvement of sexual behaviour[121123]
9Anacardium occidentale L. (Anacardiaceae)LeafHexane
extract
Increase fertility[124]
10Bulbine natalensis Baker
(Asphodelaceae)
StemAqueous extractIncrease hormone level[125]
11Butea Frondosa Koen. ex Roxb. (Leguminosae)BarkAqueous extractImprovement of sexual behaviour[126]
12Butea superba Roxb (Leguminosae)TuberEthanolic extractsIncrease penile erection[39]
13Bryonia lacinosa Linn
(Cucurbitaceae)
SeedsEthanolic extractsImprovement of sexual behaviour[127]
14Basella alba L.
(Basellaceae)
LeavesTerpenoid
or steroid compounds
Increased the blood testosterone concentrations[128]
15Boesenbergia rotunda  (L.) Mansf.
(Zingiberaceae)
RhizomeEthanolic extractImprovement of sexual behaviour[129]
16Casimiroa edulis La Llave (Rutaceae)SeedAqueous extractImprove sexual activity[130]
17Camellia sinensis   (L.) O. Kuntze (Theaceae), Leaves and budsAqueous extract Increased the blood testosterone concentrations[131]
18Catha edulis Forsk
(Celestreceae)
Shoots and
Small branches
Chloroform : diethyether extract (1 : 3)Improvement of sexual behaviour[132]
19Caesalpinia benthamiana L.
(Caesalpiniaceae)
RootsAqueous extract Improve sexual activity[133]
20Chlorophytum borivilianum Sant. (Liliaceae)RootsEthanolic extractImprove sexual activity[51]
21Cocculus hirsutus
Linn (Menispermaceae)
Aerial part Methanolic extractSpermatogenic[134]
22Curculigo orchioides Gaertn (Amaryllidaceae)RhizomeEthanolic extractImprove sexual activity[42, 135]
23Crocus sativus L. (Iridaceae)StigmaAqueous extractImprove sexual activity[136]
24Cynomorium coccineum  L.
(Cynomoraceae)
RootsWater
Extract
Increased spermatogenesis and increase sperm count[48]
25Diodia scandeus
SW. (Rubiaceae)
HerbsEthanolic extractPotentiates the action of ACh and adrenaline[137]
26Dracaena arborea (Wild) Link (Dracaenaceae)RootAqueous and EthanolicImprove sexual activity[138]
27Dactylorhiza hatagirea (D.Don) Soo (Orchidacea)TubersAqueous extractImprove sexual activity[139]
28Eurycoma longifolia Jack.
(Simaroubaceae)
RootsMethanolic extractsImprove sexual activity[67]
29Eulophia nuda Lind. (Orchidaceae)TubersPowderImprove sexual activity[140]
30Epimedium koreanum Nakai (Berberidaceae)Herbs Aqueous and EthanolicImprove sexual activity[56]
31Epimedium brevicornum Maxim  (Berberidaceae)RootAqueous ExtractIncrease Nitric oxide release[141]
32Fadogia agrestis Schweinf. Ex Hiern (Rubiaceae)Stem Alkaloids and
Saponins
Increased the blood testosterone concentrations[142]
33Ferula hermonis Boiss
(Umbelliferae)
RootsAcetonic extractStimulated sexual motivation[143]
34Garcinia cambogia Desr. (Clusiaceae)SeedsBiflavonoid and xanthoneIncrease sperm count[144]
35Hibiscus sabdariffa  L.
(Malvaceae)
FlowersAnthocyaninsIncrease Sperm count[145]
36Hibiscus macranthus  
Hochst. Ex A.Rich.
(Malvaceae)
LeavesTerpenoid
or steroid compounds
Increased the blood testosterone concentrations[128]
37Kaempferia parviflora Wall. Ex. Baker
(Zingiberaceae)
RhizomesAlcohol extractIncrease in blood flow to the testis, Sexual behaviour[146, 147]
38Lepidium meyenii  
Walpers (Brassicaceae)
RootAqueous extractSpermatogenesis [83]
39Lophira laceolata (Ohanacea)Stem BarkAqueous extractImprove sexual behaviour[148]
40Lithospermum arvense L. (Boraginaceae)SeedAqueous extractAndrogenic[149]
41Massularia acuminata  (G. Don) Bullock ex Hoyl. (Rubiaceae)StemAqueous extractStimulate male sexual maturation[150]
42Mondia whitei (Hook f.) Skeels. (Periplocaceae)RootsAqueous extractIncrease in the testicular weight and serum and testicular testosterone[151, 152]
43Mucuna pruriens Baker
(Fabaceae)
SeedChloroform extractSpermatogenic[84]
44Microdesmis keayana J.Léonard. (Pandaceae) RootsKeayanidine B and keayanineStimulate NO production[153]
45Montanoa tomentosa Cerv (Asteraceae)Leaves and flowersAqueous extract Improve sexual behaviour[154]
46Myristica fragrans  
Houtt. (Myristicaceae)
Nutmeg50% ethanolic extracts Improve sexual behaviour[155, 156]
47Orchis latifolia Linn (Orchidaceae)RootsAqueous extract,
Powder
Improve sexual behaviour[140, 157]
48Panax ginseng  
C. A. Mayer (Araliaceae)
RootsGinsenosides,
saponin glycosides
Increase Nitric oxide central
nervous system action
[158]
49Panax quinquefolium  
L. (Araliaceae)
RootsPowdered Facilitate male copulatory
behavior
[159]
50Pausinystalia yohimbe  
Pierre ex Beille (Rubiaceae)
BarkYohimbineImprove sexual behaviour
And penile erection
[160]
51Peganum harmala L.
(Zygophyllaceae)
SeedPowderedImprove semen quality, Spermatogenesis and organ weight[161]
52Pentadiplandra brazzeana  
Baill. (Capparidaceae)
RootAqueous extractSerum and testicular testosterone levels testicular cholesterol, the seminal vesicular fructose [162]
53Pfaffia paniculata   (Martius) Kuntze
(Amaranthaceae)
RootAqueous extractIncrease serum testosterone[163]
54Piper Gnineense Schumach.  &  Thonn. (Piperaceae) FruitsAqueous extractImprovement of sexual behaviour[114]
55Psidium guajava Linn (Myrtaceae)LeavesEthanol extractIncrease sperm count[164]
56Psoralea corylifolia L.
(Fabaceae)
FruitsAqueous extractIncreased sperm counts, induces spermatogenesis[165]
57Passiflora incarnate Linn (Passifloraceae)LeavesMethanolic extractIncrease sexual behaviour[166]
58Rubus coreanus Miq (Rosaceae)FruitPowder Enhancing spermatogenesis[167]
59Rhoicissus tridentata L.f. (Wild and R.B. Drumm)
(Vitaceae)
Root barkChloroform and Ethanolic extractRelaxed the corpus cavernosal smooth muscle[168]
60Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. & Perry. Flower bud50% ethanolic extractIncrease sexual behaviour[169]
61Senecio cardiophyllus Hemsl (Asteraceae)RootAqueous extractIncrease the ejaculatory capacity[170]
62Salvia haematodes L.
(Lamiaceae)
RootsEthanolic extractIncrease sexual behaviour[171]
63Securidaca longepedunculata (Fresen) (Polygalaceae), Root barkChloroform and Ethanolic extractRelaxed the corpus cavernosal smooth muscle[168]
64Terminalia catappa Linn. (Combretaceae)SeedsSeed suspensionIncrease sexual behaviour[172]
65Tribulus terrestris L.
(Zygophyllaceae)
FruitsProtodioscin Androgen increasing property[101]
66Tribulus alatus  
Delile (Zygophyllaceae)
Aerial parts and fruits70% alcoholic extract Increase serum testosterone[173]
67Trichopus Zeylanicus  
Gaertn (Trichopodaceae)
LeafEthanolic extractStimulate sexual behaviour[174]
68Tricholepis glaberrima. DC (Compositae)Aerial partsMethanol extractStimulate sexual behaviour[175]
69Turnera diffusa Willd
(Turneraceae)
Leaf30% ethanol in water (v : v), Stimulate sexual behaviour[176]
70Vanda tessellate (Roxb.)
Hook. Ex Don
(Orchidaceaae)
Root,
flower
Aqueous and ethanolicStimulate sexual behaviour[177]
71Wrightia natalensis  (Stapf) (Apocynaceae)Root barkChloroform and Ethanolic extractRelaxed the corpus cavernosal smooth muscle[168]
72Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal. (Solanaceae) RootAqueous extractSpermatogenesis [49]
73Zingiber officinale  
Roscoe (Zingiberaceae)
RootsAqueous extractIncrease of both testis weight and serum testosterone
levels
[162]
74Pueraria tuberosa DC
(Fabaceae)
tubersEthanolic extractStimulate sexual behavior [178]
75Spilanthes acmella  
Murr. (Asteraceae)
flowersEthanolic extractStimulate sexual behavior[179]
76Pedalium murex Linn.
(Pedaliaceae)
fruitsEthanolic extractStimulate sexual behavior [180]
77Dracaena arboreaI (Willd.)
(Asparagaceae)
RootsAqueous and ethanolic extractsinhibit the activity of the bulbospongiosus muscles[181]
78Allanblackia floribunda  
Oliv. (Guttiferae)
Stem barkAqueous and ethanolic extractsinhibit the activity of the bulbospongiosus muscles[182]
79Corchorus depressus Linn (Tiliaceae)Whole plantChlorofrm fractionStimulate sexual behavior[183]
80Arctium lappa L (Asteraceae)RootAqueous extractStimulate sexual behavior[184]
81Musa paradisiacal L (Musaceae)Root Aqueous extractIncrease testosterone level[185]
82Lecaniodiscus cupanioides Planch.  (Sapindaceae)RootAqueous extractIncrease testosterone level[186]

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