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BioMed Research International
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 907816, 8 pages
Review Article

Inflammation Induced by Perfluorocarbon Liquid: Intra- and Postoperative Use

1Hospital Universitario Ramón y Cajal, Madrid, Spain
2Vissum Madrid, Madrid, Spain

Received 19 January 2014; Accepted 24 February 2014; Published 24 March 2014

Academic Editor: Mario R. Romano

Copyright © 2014 Marta S. Figueroa and Diego Ruiz Casas. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Perfluorocarbon liquids (PFCLs) are useful and safe surgical tools in vitreoretinal surgery. The use of PFCL as a tamponade has been controversial due to the corneal toxicity, retinal infiltration, and inflammatory reaction in experimental studies. Several authors have studied in humans the anatomical and functional outcome and adverse effects of perfluorocarbon liquids used as short-, medium-, and long-term tamponade. PFCLs develop dispersion a few days after injection and droplets may move into the anterior chamber and cause corneal endothelial damage. When PFCLs are used as postoperative tamponades for more than one week, a foreign-body inflammatory reaction is observed in up to 30% of cases but such a reaction does not induce PVR, and it resolves after removal of PFCLs. Although most clinical studies have found no signs of retinal toxicity such as progressive visual acuity deterioration or macular anatomical changes, few performed ERG or retinal histological analysis.