(i) Clearing heat and drying dampness (ii) Discharging fire and removing toxin
(i) Reducing lipid peroxidation [63, 64] (ii) Upregulating PPAR (iii) Negative modulation of FXR to upregulate the gene expression of CYP7A1 for cholesterol conversion into bile acids  (iv) Decreasing degradation of dietary polysaccharides  (v) Upregulation of LDLR in vitro and in vivo 
Crataegi Fructus (Shanzha/Hawthorn)
Dried ripe fruit of Crataegus pinnatifida Bge. and C. pinnatifida Bge. var. major N. E. Br.
Polyphenols  and triterpenic acids for example oleanolic acid and ursolic acid 
(i) Promoting digestion and invigorating the stomach (ii) Resolving turgidity and lowering lipid (iii) Moving and dissipating blood stasis
(i) Activating PPAR  (ii) Inhibiting intestinal ACAT activity in human colon carcinoma cell line Caco-2 
(i) Greatly tonifying the original (ii) Resuming pulse and securing collapse (iii) Replenishing “lung” and “spleen” (iv) Engendering fluid and nourishing blood (v) Calming the mental state and enhancing intelligence
(i) Improving lipid peroxidation in liver by reduction in serum MDA [76, 83, 87] (ii) Activating LPL activity  (iii) Inhibiting pancreatic lipase  (iv) Inhibiting food appetite via modifying the serum content and mRNA expression of neuropeptide Y, Y2 receptor, and peptide YY 
Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma (Sanqi)
Rhizome and root of Panax notoginseng (Burk.) F. H. Chen
(i) Dissipating stasis and stanching bleeding (ii) Dispelling swelling and relieving pain
(i) Reducing HMG-CoA reductase (ii) Reducing lipid peroxidation by increase in the activity of antioxidant hepatic SOD and glutathione peroxidase  (iii) Inducing the biosynthesis of bile acids from cholesterol and promoting the -oxidation of FA in the liver  (iv) Acting as a dual FXR/LXR agonist 
Oryzae cum Monasco Semen (Red yeast rice/Hongqu)
Washed and cooked rice fermented with Monascus purpureus Went
(i) Resolving the flesh and reducing fever (ii) Engendering fluid to quench thirst (iii) Promoting eruption (iv) Uprasing the middle to relieve diarrhea (v) Unblocking meridian and activating collaterals (vi) Removing wine toxin
(i) Promoting cholesterol and bile acids excretion in liver  (ii) Estrogen-like effect on lipid metabolism in liver and adipose tissues  (iii) Hepatoprotective effect in OVX-induced hepatic steatosis 
Rhei Radix et Rhizoma (Dahuang)
Root and rhizome of Rheum palmatum L., R. tanguticum Maxim or R. officinale Baill.
(i) Relaxing the bowels (ii) Cooling the blood and removing toxin (iii) Expelling stasis to unblock the meridian
(i) Inhibitory effect on HMG-CoA reductase  (ii) Having LXR antagonism and regulation of uncoupling protein-1 expression in brown adipose tissues 
Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix (Danshen)
Dried root of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge.
(i) Danshensu (ii) Rosmarinic acid (iii) Salvianolic acid A and B 
(i) Promoting blood circulation and dispelling stasis (ii) Nourishing the blood and calming mental state (iii) Regulating menstruation and suppressing pains (iv) Cooling blood and eliminating carbuncle
(i) Containing antioxidant (esp. salvianolic acid B) for prevention of endothelial damage and inhibition of LDL oxidation  (ii) Acting as a FXR/LXR coagonist 
We are committed to sharing findings related to COVID-19 as quickly as possible. We will be providing unlimited waivers of publication charges for accepted research articles as well as case reports and case series related to COVID-19. Review articles are excluded from this waiver policy. Sign up here as a reviewer to help fast-track new submissions.