BioMed Research International / 2014 / Article / Tab 2

Review Article

A Review on the Traditional Chinese Medicinal Herbs and Formulae with Hypolipidemic Effect

Table 2

A summary of antihyperlipidemic effects of representative Chinese herbal medicines.

Chinese herbal medicinesSourcesPossible bioactive compoundsEffects mentioned in TCMs [54, 94]Possible hypolipidemic mechanisms

Alismatis Rhizoma
(Zexie)
Dried rhizome of Alisma orientale (Sam.) Juzep.Alisol-triterpenes [59](i) Promoting urination to drain dampness
(ii) Discharging heat
(iii) Resolving turbidity and lowering lipid
(i) Decreasing the liver synthesis of cholesterol [57]
(ii) Lessening lipid peroxidation and activating antioxidant enzymes [58]

Coptidis Rhizoma
(Huanglian/Goldthread)
Dried rhizome of Coptis chinensis Franch. or C. deltoidea C. Y. Cheng et Hsiao.Alkaloids [64], esp. berberine [66, 67](i) Clearing heat and drying dampness
(ii) Discharging fire and removing toxin
(i) Reducing lipid peroxidation [63, 64]
(ii) Upregulating PPAR
(iii) Negative modulation of FXR to upregulate the gene expression of CYP7A1 for cholesterol conversion into bile acids [64]
(iv) Decreasing degradation of dietary polysaccharides [65]
(v) Upregulation of LDLR in vitro and in vivo [66]

Crataegi Fructus (Shanzha/Hawthorn)Dried ripe fruit of Crataegus pinnatifida Bge. and C. pinnatifida Bge. var. major N. E. Br.Polyphenols [70] and triterpenic acids for example oleanolic acid and ursolic acid [71](i) Promoting digestion and invigorating the stomach
(ii) Resolving turgidity and lowering lipid
(iii) Moving and dissipating blood stasis
(i) Activating PPAR [69]
(ii) Inhibiting intestinal ACAT activity in human colon carcinoma cell line Caco-2 [71]

Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma (Renshen/Asian ginseng)Dried root of Panax ginseng C. A. Mey.(i) Saponins [78, 79]
(ii) Acidic polysaccharides [81]
(iii) Phenolic extract [83]
(i) Greatly tonifying the original
(ii) Resuming pulse and securing collapse
(iii) Replenishing “lung” and “spleen
(iv) Engendering fluid and nourishing blood
(v) Calming the mental state and enhancing intelligence
(i) Improving lipid peroxidation in liver by reduction in serum MDA [76, 83, 87]
(ii) Activating LPL activity [81]
(iii) Inhibiting pancreatic lipase [82]
(iv) Inhibiting food appetite via modifying the serum content and mRNA expression of neuropeptide Y, Y2 receptor, and peptide YY [85]

Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma (Sanqi)Rhizome and root of Panax notoginseng (Burk.) F. H. ChenSanqi saponins [95](i) Dissipating stasis and stanching bleeding
(ii) Dispelling swelling and relieving pain
(i) Reducing HMG-CoA reductase
(ii) Reducing lipid peroxidation by increase in the activity of antioxidant hepatic SOD and glutathione peroxidase [95]
(iii) Inducing the biosynthesis of bile acids from cholesterol and promoting the -oxidation of FA in the liver [96]
(iv) Acting as a dual FXR/LXR agonist [124]

Oryzae cum Monasco Semen (Red yeast rice/Hongqu)Washed and cooked rice fermented with Monascus purpureus WentMonacolins, esp. monacolin K [104, 110](i) Strengthening “spleen” to improve food digestion
(ii) Promoting blood circulation to dissipate blood stasis
Containing a family of monacolins that resemble HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors [104]

Puerariae Lobatae Radix (Gegen/Kudzu root)Dried root of Pueraria  lobata (Willd.) OhwiPuerarin [113](i) Resolving the flesh and reducing fever
(ii) Engendering fluid to quench thirst
(iii) Promoting eruption
(iv) Uprasing the middle to relieve diarrhea
(v) Unblocking meridian and activating collaterals
(vi) Removing wine toxin
(i) Promoting cholesterol and bile acids excretion in liver [113]
(ii) Estrogen-like effect on lipid metabolism in liver and adipose tissues [116]
(iii) Hepatoprotective effect in OVX-induced hepatic steatosis [114]

Rhei Radix et Rhizoma (Dahuang)Root and rhizome of Rheum palmatum L., R. tanguticum Maxim or R. officinale Baill. Rhein [123125](i) Relaxing the bowels
(ii) Cooling the blood and removing toxin
(iii) Expelling stasis to unblock the meridian
(i) Inhibitory effect on HMG-CoA reductase [123]
(ii) Having LXR antagonism and regulation of uncoupling protein-1 expression in brown adipose tissues [125]

Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix (Danshen)Dried root of Salvia  miltiorrhiza Bunge.(i) Danshensu
(ii) Rosmarinic acid
(iii) Salvianolic acid A and B [133]
(i) Promoting blood circulation and dispelling stasis
(ii) Nourishing the blood and calming mental state
(iii) Regulating menstruation and suppressing pains
(iv) Cooling blood and eliminating carbuncle
(i) Containing antioxidant (esp. salvianolic acid B) for prevention of endothelial damage and inhibition of LDL oxidation [133]
(ii) Acting as a FXR/LXR coagonist [134]

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