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BioMed Research International
Volume 2014, Article ID 937817, 7 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/937817
Clinical Study

Directly-Observed Intermittent Therapy versus Unsupervised Daily Regimen during the Intensive Phase of Antituberculosis Therapy in HIV Infected Patients

Department of Infectious Diseases, Bathalapalli Rural Development Trust Hospital, Kadiri Road, Bathalapalli, Anantapur, Andhra Pradesh 515661, India

Received 25 February 2014; Revised 23 May 2014; Accepted 26 May 2014; Published 11 June 2014

Academic Editor: Anete Trajman

Copyright © 2014 Gerardo Alvarez-Uria et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

The World Health Organization strongly recommends using daily antituberculosis therapy (ATT) during the intensive phase for HIV infected patients. India has the highest burden of tuberculosis in the world, but HIV infected patients are still receiving intermittent ATT. In this study we compared the mortality in patients who received directly-observed intermittent ATT versus self-administered daily ATT with fixed dose combinations during the intensive phase in a context of freely available antiretroviral therapy. The study included 1460 patients, 343 in the intermittent ATT group and 1117 in the daily ATT group. Baseline covariates of the two groups were balanced using inverse probability of treatment weighting based on propensity score methods. In a sensitivity analysis, continuous variables (albumin, CD4 count, and age) were modelled using restricted cubic smoothing splines. Compared with patients who received daily ATT, patients who received intermittent ATT had a 40% higher risk of mortality (1.4 hazard ratio; 95% confidence interval, 1.14–1.7). We estimated that the use of daily ATT could achieve a 10% absolute reduction in mortality at 12 months. Self-administered daily ATT was not associated with an increased risk of default from treatment. These results support the immediate implementation of daily ATT for HIV infected patients during the intensive phase in India.