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BioMed Research International
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 953873, 11 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/953873
Research Article

Anti-Inflammatory Effect and Mechanism of the Green Fruit Extract of Solanum integrifolium Poir.

1Department of Food Science and Technology, Chia Nan University, Tainan 717, Taiwan
2Crop Improvement Section, Hualien District Agricultural Research and Extension Station, Hualien 97365, Taiwan
3Department of Pharmacy, Chia Nan University of Pharmacy and Science, Tainan 717, Taiwan
4Department of Biotechnology, Chia Nan University of Pharmacy and Science, Tainan 717, Taiwan
5Department of Cosmetic Science, Chia Nan University of Pharmacy and Science, Tainan 717, Taiwan

Received 13 April 2014; Accepted 4 July 2014; Published 15 July 2014

Academic Editor: Gernot Zissel

Copyright © 2014 Lisu Wang et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

The green fruit of Solanum integrifolium Poir. has been used traditionally as an anti-inflammatory and analgesic remedy in Taiwanese aboriginal medicine. The goal of this study is to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity and mechanism of the green fruit extract of S. integrifolium. A bioactivity-guided fractionation procedure was developed to identify the active partition fraction. The methanol fraction (ME), with the highest phenolic content, exhibited the strongest inhibitory effect against LPS-mediated nitric oxide (NO) release and cytotoxicity in RAW264.7 macrophages. ME also significantly downregulated the expression of LPS-induced proinflammatory genes, such as iNOS, COX-2, IL-1β, IL-6, CCL2/MCP-1, and CCL3/MIP1α. Moreover, ME significantly upregulated HO-1 expression and stimulated the activation of extracellular-signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2). Pretreatment of cells with the HO-1 inhibitor zinc protoporphyrin and MEK/ERK inhibitor U0126 attenuated ME’s inhibitory activity against LPS-induced NO production. Taken together, this is the first study to demonstrate the anti-inflammatory activity of green fruit extract of S. integrifolium and its activity may be mediated by the upregulation of HO-1 expression and activation of ERK1/2 pathway.