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BioMed Research International
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 981434, 11 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/981434
Review Article

From Bench to Bedside: Immunotherapy for Prostate Cancer

1Australian Prostate Cancer Research Centre-Queensland, Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation, Queensland University of Technology, Translational Research Institute, 37 Kent Street, Brisbane, QLD 4102, Australia
2Sydney School of Medicine, University of Western Sydney, Ingham Institute for Applied Medical Research, Campbell Street, Sydney, NSW 2170, Australia
3Biological Resources Imaging Laboratory, Lowy Cancer Research Centre, University of New South Wales, High Street, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia

Received 5 June 2014; Accepted 18 August 2014; Published 4 September 2014

Academic Editor: Andreas Doll

Copyright © 2014 Brian Wan-Chi Tse et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

The mainstay therapeutic strategy for metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) continues to be androgen deprivation therapy usually in combination with chemotherapy or androgen receptor targeting therapy in either sequence, or recently approved novel agents such as Radium 223. However, immunotherapy has also emerged as an option for the treatment of this disease following the approval of sipuleucel-T by the FDA in 2010. Immunotherapy is a rational approach for prostate cancer based on a body of evidence suggesting these cancers are inherently immunogenic and, most importantly, that immunological interventions can induce protective antitumour responses. Various forms of immunotherapy are currently being explored clinically, with the most common being cancer vaccines (dendritic-cell, viral, and whole tumour cell-based) and immune checkpoint inhibition. This review will discuss recent clinical developments of immune-based therapies for prostate cancer that have reached the phase III clinical trial stage. A perspective of how immunotherapy could be best employed within current treatment regimes to achieve most clinical benefits is also provided.