Table 1: The literature review summary of miRNAs found to be deregulated in cardiovascular diseases. A number of studies have used high throughput miRNA profiling technologies to compare miRNA expression levels between control and affected tissues from cardiac disease inducing mice models or postmortem samples from failing human myocardium. The heading of the table identifies the specific study, followed by the species and diseases modeled, and the experimental design as well as the microarray technologies used to analyze the data. In bold, in rows below, the most deregulated miRNAs according to the different studies are displayed. The following miRNAs tabulated that are not in bold represent other cardiac specific miRNAs found to be deregulated in the five studies referenced but not directly mentioned in our review. Arrows illustrate the fold change of upregulation or downregulation of listed miRNAs as compared to control samples. miRNAs with the same seed region were combined into families. The family was labeled as regulated when at least 3 members of the family displayed a change in expression profile. Each family includes the following: let-7 family = let-7a, let-b, let-c, let-d, let-e, let-f, let-g, let-h, let-I, and let-j; miR-15 family = miR-15a, miR-15b, miR-16, miR-195, miR-424, and miR-497; miR-17 family = miR-17-5p, miR-20a, miR-20b, miR-93, miR-106a, and miR-106b; miR-29 family = miR-29a, miR-29b, and miR-29c; miR-30 family = miR-30a, miR-30b, miR-30c, miR-30d, and miR-30e. LAC = left coronary artery constriction; HF = heart failure; ICM = ischemic cardiomyopathy; DCM = dilated cardiomyopathy; d = days. ↑↑↑ ≥ 7.5; ↑↑ ≥ 2.5; ↑ ≥ 1 fold increase; —: not available; ↓ ≥ −1; ↓↓ ≥ −2.5; ↓↓↓ ≥ −7.5 fold decrease.

Study van Rooij et al. [16]Ikeda et al. [18]Matkovich et al. [76]Rao et al. [75] Cheng et al. [74]

SpeciesMouseMouseHumanHumanHumanHumanHumanHumanMouseMouse

Model of diseaseLAC
(3 days)
LAC
(14 days)
HFICMDCMAortic
stenosis
DCM and ICMHFDgr8 conditional KO mouseThoracic aortic constriction

Microarray platformmiRMAX microarray Bead-based flow
cytometric miRNA
Ncode microarrayIllumina microarraymirVana microarray

miRLAC (3 d)LAC (14 d)HFICMDCMASDCM/ICMHFDgr8 KO mouseTAC
(7 d)
TAC
(14 d)
TAC
(21 d)

Let-7 family↑↑↑↑↑↑↑↑↑
15 family↑↑↑↑↑↑↑↑
29 family↓↓↓↓↓↓
30 family↓↓↑↑↑↑↓↓↓↓↓↓

1↑↑↑↑↑↑↑↑
21 ↑↑↑↑↑↑↑↑↑↑↑↑↑↑↑↑↑
22↓↓↓↓↓↓↑↑↑↑↑↑↑
23a, b↑↑
24↑↑
26a, b↑↑
27a, b↑↑↑
125a, b↑↑↑↑
126↓↓↓↓↓↓↑↑↑↑↑↑
133a, b↑↑
143↓↓↓↓↓↑↑
208↑↑
214 ↑↑↑↑↑↑↑↑
379↑↑↑
486↓↓
499 ↓↓↑↑
638↑↑↑↑↑

10a, b ↑↑↑↑
146a, b ↑↑↑↑↑
150 ↑↑↑↑↑↑
223 ↑↑↑↑↑
92