Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
BioMed Research International
Volume 2015, Article ID 149431, 7 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/149431
Review Article

Chew the Pain Away: Oral Habits to Cope with Pain and Stress and to Stimulate Cognition

1Department of Clinical Neuropsychology, VU University Amsterdam, Van der Boechorststraat 1, 1081 BT Amsterdam, Netherlands
2Department of Oral Kinesiology, Academic Centre for Dentistry Amsterdam (ACTA), University of Amsterdam and VU University Amsterdam, MOVE Research Institute Amsterdam, Gustav Mahlerlaan 3004, 1081 LA Amsterdam, Netherlands

Received 19 September 2014; Accepted 10 December 2014

Academic Editor: Jian-Hua Liu

Copyright © 2015 Roxane Anthea Francesca Weijenberg and Frank Lobbezoo. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. A. van der Bilt, “Assessment of mastication with implications for oral rehabilitation: a review,” Journal of Oral Rehabilitation, vol. 38, no. 10, pp. 754–780, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. Y. Ono, T. Kataoka, S. Miyake et al., “Chewing ameliorates stress-induced suppression of hippocampal long-term potentiation,” Neuroscience, vol. 154, no. 4, pp. 1352–1359, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. Y. Ono, T. Yamamoto, K.-Y. Kubo, and M. Onozuka, “Occlusion and brain function: mastication as a prevention of cognitive dysfunction,” Journal of Oral Rehabilitation, vol. 37, no. 8, pp. 624–640, 2010. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. K.-Y. Kubo, Y. Ichihashi, C. Kurata et al., “Masticatory function and cognitive function,” Okajimas Folia Anatomica Japonica, vol. 87, no. 3, pp. 135–140, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. R. A. F. Weijenberg, E. J. A. Scherder, and F. Lobbezoo, “Mastication for the mind-The relationship between mastication and cognition in ageing and dementia,” Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, vol. 35, no. 3, pp. 483–497, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. E. Nitta, Y. Iwasa, M. Sugita, C. Hirono, and Y. Shiba, “Role of mastication and swallowing in the control of autonomic nervous activity for heart rate in different postures,” Journal of Oral Rehabilitation, vol. 30, no. 12, pp. 1209–1215, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. Y. Shiba, E. Nitta, C. Hirono, M. Sugita, and Y. Iwasa, “Evaluation of mastication-induced change in sympatho-vagal balance through spectral analysis of heart rate variability,” Journal of Oral Rehabilitation, vol. 29, no. 10, pp. 956–960, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. B. Kordass, C. Lucas, D. Huetzen et al., “Functional magnetic resonance imaging of brain activity during chewing and occlusion by natural teeth and occlusal splints,” Annals of Anatomy, vol. 189, no. 4, pp. 371–376, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. T. Ono, Y. Hasegawa, K. Hori, T. Nokubi, and T. Hamasaki, “Task-induced activation and hemispheric dominance in cerebral circulation during gum chewing,” Journal of Neurology, vol. 254, no. 10, pp. 1427–1432, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. Y. Hasegawa, T. Ono, J. Sakagami et al., “Influence of voluntary control of masticatory side and rhythm on cerebral hemodynamics,” Clinical Oral Investigations, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 113–118, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. M. Hamer, “Psychosocial stress and cardiovascular disease risk: the role of physical activity,” Psychosomatic Medicine, vol. 74, no. 9, pp. 896–903, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. K. M. Volkers and E. J. A. Scherder, “Impoverished environment, cognition, aging and dementia,” Reviews in the Neurosciences, vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 259–266, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. E. Kraft, “Cognitive function, physical activity, and aging: possible biological links and implications for multimodal interventions,” Aging, Neuropsychology, and Cognition, vol. 19, no. 1-2, pp. 248–263, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. J. Tortosa-Martínez and A. Clow, “Does physical activity reduce risk for Alzheimer's disease through interaction with the stress neuroendocrine system?” Stress, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 243–261, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. A. P. Allen and A. P. Smith, “A review of the evidence that chewing gum affects stress, alertness and cognition,” Journal of Behavioral and Neuroscience Research, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 7–23, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  16. L. K. Tucha and J. Koerts, “Gum chewing and cognition: an overview,” Neuroscience & Medicine, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 243–250, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  17. O. Sabuncuoglu, C. Orengul, A. Bikmazer, and S. Y. Kaynar, “Breastfeeding and parafunctional oral habits in children with and without attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder,” Breastfeeding Medicine, vol. 9, no. 5, pp. 244–250, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  18. F. Lobbezoo, J. Ahlberg, A. G. Glaros et al., “Bruxism defined and graded: an international consensus,” Journal of Oral Rehabilitation, vol. 40, no. 1, pp. 2–4, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. F. Lobbezoo, J. Ahlberg, D. Manfredini, and E. Winocur, “Are bruxism and the bite causally related?” Journal of Oral Rehabilitation, vol. 39, no. 7, pp. 489–501, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. O. M. Tanaka, R. W. F. Vitral, G. Y. Tanaka, A. P. Guerrero, and E. S. Camargo, “Nailbiting, or onychophagia: a special habit,” American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, vol. 134, no. 2, pp. 305–308, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. T. I. Williams, R. Rose, and S. Chisholm, “What is the function of nail biting: an analog assessment study,” Behaviour Research and Therapy, vol. 45, no. 5, pp. 989–995, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. S. Roberts, K. O'Connor, and C. Bélanger, “Emotion regulation and other psychological models for body-focused repetitive behaviors,” Clinical Psychology Review, vol. 33, no. 6, pp. 745–762, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. F. Lobbezoo, J. van der Zaag, M. K. A. van Selms, H. L. Hamburger, and M. Naeije, “Principles for the management of bruxism,” Journal of Oral Rehabilitation, vol. 35, no. 7, pp. 509–523, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. J. L. de-la-Hoz, “Sleep bruxism: review and update for the restorative dentist,” Alpha Omegan, vol. 106, no. 1-2, pp. 23–28, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  25. F. Lobbezoo and M. Naeije, “Bruxism is mainly regulated centrally, not peripherally,” Journal of Oral Rehabilitation, vol. 28, no. 12, pp. 1085–1091, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. F. Lobbezoo, J. van der Zaag, and M. Naeije, “Bruxism: its multiple causes and its effects on dental implants—an updated review,” Journal of Oral Rehabilitation, vol. 33, no. 4, pp. 293–300, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. M. Wieckiewicz, A. Paradowska-Stolarz, and W. Wieckiewicz, “Psychosocial aspects of bruxism: the most paramount factor influencing teeth grinding,” BioMed Research International, vol. 2014, Article ID 469187, 7 pages, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  28. D. Manfredini and F. Lobbezoo, “Role of psychosocial factors in the etiology of bruxism,” Journal of Orofacial Pain, vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 153–166, 2009. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. M. K. A. Van Selms, F. Lobbezoo, D. J. Wicks, H. L. Hamburger, and M. Naeije, “Craniomandibular pain, oral parafunctions, and psychological stress in a longitudinal case study,” Journal of Oral Rehabilitation, vol. 31, no. 8, pp. 738–745, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. J. Ahlberg, F. Lobbezoo, K. Ahlberg et al., “Self-reported bruxism mirrors anxiety and stress in adults,” Medicina Oral, Patologia Oral y Cirugia Bucal, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. e7–e11, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. Y. Tahara, K. Sakurai, and T. Ando, “Influence of chewing and clenching on salivary cortisol levels as an indicator of stress,” Journal of Prosthodontics, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 129–135, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. R. Soeda, A. Tasaka, and K. Sakurai, “Influence of chewing force on salivary stress markers as indicator of mental stress,” Journal of Oral Rehabilitation, vol. 39, no. 4, pp. 261–269, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. C. Sato, S. Sato, H. Takashina, H. Ishii, M. Onozuka, and K. Sasaguri, “Bruxism affects stress responses in stressed rats,” Clinical Oral Investigations, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 153–160, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. A. Sasaki-Otomaru, Y. Sakuma, Y. Mochizuki, S. Ishida, Y. Kanoya, and C. Sato, “Effect of regular gum chewing on levels of anxiety, mood, and fatigue in healthy young adults,” Clinical Practice and Epidemiology in Mental Health, vol. 7, pp. 133–139, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. J. Luraschi, M. S. Korgaonkar, T. Whittle, M. Schimmel, F. Müller, and I. Klineberg, “Neuroplasticity in the adaptation to prosthodontic treatment,” Journal of Orofacial Pain, vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 206–216, 2013. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. A. Levine, O. Zagoory-Sharon, R. Feldman, J. G. Lewis, and A. Weller, “Measuring cortisol in human psychobiological studies,” Physiology and Behavior, vol. 90, no. 1, pp. 43–53, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. D. H. Hellhammer, S. Wüst, and B. M. Kudielka, “Salivary cortisol as a biomarker in stress research,” Psychoneuroendocrinology, vol. 34, no. 2, pp. 163–171, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. E. Van Cauter, M. Balbo, and R. Leproult, “Impact of sleep and its disturbances on hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis activity,” International Journal of Endocrinology, vol. 2010, Article ID 759234, 16 pages, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. S. Postnova, R. Fulcher, H. A. Braun, and P. A. Robinson, “A minimal physiologically based model of the HPA axis under influence of the sleep-wake cycles,” Pharmacopsychiatry, vol. 46, supplement 1, pp. S36–S43, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. R. Carbajal, S. Gréteau, C. Arnaud, and R. Guedj, “Pain in neonatology. Non-pharmacological treatment,” Archives de Pédiatrie, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  41. M. D. Lewkowski, R. G. Barr, A. Sherrard, J. Lessard, A. R. Harris, and S. N. Young, “Effects of chewing gum on responses to routine painful procedures in children,” Physiology and Behavior, vol. 79, no. 2, pp. 257–265, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. K. Kamiya, M. Fumoto, H. Kikuchi et al., “Prolonged gum chewing evokes activation of the ventral part of prefrontal cortex and suppression of nociceptive responses: involvement of the serotonergic system,” Journal of Medical and Dental Sciences, vol. 57, no. 1, pp. 35–43, 2010. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. J. L. Rhudy and C. R. France, “Defining the nociceptive flexion reflex (NFR) threshold in human participants: a comparison of different scoring criteria,” Pain, vol. 128, no. 3, pp. 244–253, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. I. Ioakimidis, M. Zandian, F. Ulbl, C. Bergh, M. Leon, and P. Södersten, “How eating affects mood,” Physiology and Behavior, vol. 103, no. 3-4, pp. 290–294, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. A. Ogawa, T. Morimoto, J. W. Hu et al., “Hard-food mastication suppresses complete Freund's adjuvant-induced nociception,” Neuroscience, vol. 120, no. 4, pp. 1081–1092, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. A. Van'T Veer and W. A. Carlezon Jr., “Role of kappa-opioid receptors in stress and anxiety-related behavior,” Psychopharmacology, vol. 229, no. 3, pp. 435–452, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. E. J. Van Bockstaele, B. A. S. Reyes, and R. J. Valentino, “The locus coeruleus: a key nucleus where stress and opioids intersect to mediate vulnerability to opiate abuse,” Brain Research, vol. 1314, pp. 162–174, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. P. J. Brunton and J. A. Russell, “Neuroendocrine control of maternal stress responses and fetal programming by stress in pregnancy,” Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry, vol. 35, no. 5, pp. 1178–1191, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. N. Toda and M. Nakanishi-Toda, “How mental stress affects endothelial function,” Pflugers Archiv European Journal of Physiology, vol. 462, no. 6, pp. 779–794, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. M. H. M. Meeter, “Geheugen,” in Klinische Neuropsychologie, R. Kessels, Ed., pp. 197–218, Uitgeverij Boom, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  51. K. Foerde and D. Shohamy, “The role of the basal ganglia in learning and memory: insight from Parkinson's disease,” Neurobiology of Learning and Memory, vol. 96, no. 4, pp. 624–636, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. Y. Hirano, T. Obata, K. Kashikura et al., “Effects of chewing in working memory processing,” Neuroscience Letters, vol. 436, no. 2, pp. 189–192, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. M. Onozuka, K. Watanabe, S. M. Mirbod et al., “Reduced mastication stimulates impairment of spatial memory and degeneration of hippocampal neurons in aged SAMP8 mice,” Brain Research, vol. 826, no. 1, pp. 148–153, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. F. McNab and T. Klingberg, “Prefrontal cortex and basal ganglia control access to working memory,” Nature Neuroscience, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 103–107, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. N. K. R. Gudrun, “Ruimtelijke cognitie,” in Klinische Neuropsychologie, R. Kessels, Ed., pp. 174–195, Uitgeverij Boom, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  56. A. J. Porcelli, D. Cruz, K. Wenberg, M. D. Patterson, B. B. Biswal, and B. Rypma, “The effects of acute stress on human prefrontal working memory systems,” Physiology & Behavior, vol. 95, no. 3, pp. 282–289, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. B. S. McEwen, “Central effects of stress hormones in health and disease: understanding the protective and damaging effects of stress and stress mediators,” European Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 583, no. 2-3, pp. 174–185, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. M. G. N. Bos, J. Schuijer, F. Lodestijn, T. Beckers, and M. Kindt, “Stress enhances reconsolidation of declarative memory,” Psychoneuroendocrinology, vol. 46, pp. 102–113, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. D. H. E. Boelen, L. Fasotti, and J. M. Spikman, “Aandacht en executieve functies,” in Klinische Neuropsychologie, R. Kessels, Ed., vol. 21, pp. 69–79, Uitgeverij Boom, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 1992. View at Google Scholar
  60. G. J. Lavigne, N. Huynh, T. Kato et al., “Genesis of sleep bruxism: motor and autonomic-cardiac interactions,” Archives of Oral Biology, vol. 52, no. 4, pp. 381–384, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. M. Major, P. H. Rompré, F. Guitard et al., “A controlled daytime challenge of motor performance and vigilance in sleep bruxers,” Journal of Dental Research, vol. 78, no. 11, pp. 1754–1762, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. L. Tucha, W. Simpson, L. Evans et al., “Detrimental effects of gum chewing on vigilance in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder,” Appetite, vol. 55, no. 3, pp. 679–684, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. P. Maillou, S. W. Cadden, and F. Lobbezoo, “The inhibitory effect of a chewing task on a human jaw reflex,” Muscle & Nerve, vol. 41, no. 6, pp. 845–849, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. M. Koutris, F. Lobbezoo, M. Naeije et al., “Effects of intense chewing exercises on the masticatory sensory-motor system,” Journal of Dental Research, vol. 88, no. 7, pp. 658–662, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. N. C. W. van der Kaaij, P. Maillou, J. J. van der Weijden, M. Naeije, and F. Lobbezoo, “Reproducible effects of subjectively assessed muscle fatigue on an inhibitory jaw reflex in humans,” Archives of Oral Biology, vol. 54, no. 9, pp. 879–883, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. O. F. Molina, J. Dos Santos, M. Mazzetto, S. Nelson, T. Nowlin, and É. T. Mainieri, “Oral jaw behaviors in TMD and bruxism: a comparison study by severity of bruxism,” Cranio, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 114–121, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. E. Winocur, A. Gavish, T. Finkelshtein, M. Halachmi, and E. Gazit, “Oral habits among adolescent girls and their association with symptoms of temporomandibular disorders,” Journal of Oral Rehabilitation, vol. 28, no. 7, pp. 624–629, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus