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BioMed Research International
Volume 2015, Article ID 168682, 14 pages
Research Article

Bladder Carcinoma Data with Clinical Risk Factors and Molecular Markers: A Cluster Analysis

1Urology Department, Hospital Clinico San Carlos, Complutense University, Instituto de Investigacion Sanitaria San Carlos (IdISSC), 28040 Madrid, Spain
2Natural Computing Laboratory (LCoN), Mackenzie Presbyterian University, 01302-000 São Paulo, SP, Brazil
3Clinical Analysis Department, Hospital Clinico Universitario San Carlos, 28040 Madrid, Spain
4Odontology School, Complutense University, 28040 Madrid, Spain
5Biomedical Research Institute of Salamanca/BISITE Research Group, University of Salamanca, Edificio I+D+i, 37008 Salamanca, Spain

Received 28 September 2014; Revised 5 January 2015; Accepted 15 January 2015

Academic Editor: Isabelle Bichindaritz

Copyright © 2015 Enrique Redondo-Gonzalez et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Bladder cancer occurs in the epithelial lining of the urinary bladder and is amongst the most common types of cancer in humans, killing thousands of people a year. This paper is based on the hypothesis that the use of clinical and histopathological data together with information about the concentration of various molecular markers in patients is useful for the prediction of outcomes and the design of treatments of nonmuscle invasive bladder carcinoma (NMIBC). A population of 45 patients with a new diagnosis of NMIBC was selected. Patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), muscle invasive bladder carcinoma (MIBC), carcinoma in situ (CIS), and NMIBC recurrent tumors were not included due to their different clinical behavior. Clinical history was obtained by means of anamnesis and physical examination, and preoperative imaging and urine cytology were carried out for all patients. Then, patients underwent conventional transurethral resection (TURBT) and some proteomic analyses quantified the biomarkers (p53, neu, and EGFR). A postoperative follow-up was performed to detect relapse and progression. Clusterings were performed to find groups with clinical, molecular markers, histopathological prognostic factors, and statistics about recurrence, progression, and overall survival of patients with NMIBC. Four groups were found according to tumor sizes, risk of relapse or progression, and biological behavior. Outlier patients were also detected and categorized according to their clinical characters and biological behavior.