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BioMed Research International
Volume 2015 (2015), Article ID 183586, 6 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/183586
Research Article

Navigation of Pedicle Screws in the Thoracic Spine with a New Electromagnetic Navigation System: A Human Cadaver Study

1Center for Spine Surgery and Pain Therapy, Center for Orthopaedics and Traumatology of the St. Elisabeth Group–Catholic Hospitals Rhine-Ruhr, St. Anna Hospital Herne/Marienhospital Herne University Hospital/Marien Hospital Witten, Hospitalstrasse 19, 44649 Herne, Germany
2Clinic for Orthopaedics and Orthopaedic Surgery, University Medicine of Greifswald, Ferdinand-Sauerbruch-Strasse, 17475 Greifswald, Germany
3Institute for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Marienhospital Herne, University Hospital of the Ruhr-University Bochum, St. Elisabeth Group–Catholic Hospitals Rhine-Ruhr, Hölkeskampring 40, 44625 Herne, Germany
4Center for Orthopaedics and Traumatology of the St. Elisabeth Group–Catholic Hospitals Rhine-Ruhr, St. Anna Hospital Herne/Marienhospital Herne University Hospital/Marien Hospital Witten, Hospitalstrasse 19, 44649 Herne, Germany

Received 5 October 2014; Revised 25 January 2015; Accepted 25 January 2015

Academic Editor: Shiro Imagama

Copyright © 2015 Patrick Hahn et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Introduction. Posterior stabilization of the spine is a standard procedure in spinal surgery. In addition to the standard techniques, several new techniques have been developed. The objective of this cadaveric study was to examine the accuracy of a new electromagnetic navigation system for instrumentation of pedicle screws in the spine. Material and Method. Forty-eight pedicle screws were inserted in the thoracic spine of human cadavers using EMF navigation and instruments developed especially for electromagnetic navigation. The screw position was assessed postoperatively by a CT scan. Results. The screws were classified into 3 groups: grade 1 = ideal position; grade 2 = cortical penetration <2 mm; grade 3 = cortical penetration ≥2 mm. The initial evaluation of the system showed satisfied positioning for the thoracic spine; 37 of 48 screws (77.1%, 95% confidence interval [62.7%, 88%]) were classified as group 1 or 2. Discussion. The screw placement was satisfactory. The initial results show that there is room for improvement with some changes needed. The ease of use and short setup times should be pointed out. Instrumentation is achieved without restricting the operator’s mobility during navigation. Conclusion. The results indicate a good placement technique for pedicle screws. Big advantages are the easy handling of the system.