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BioMed Research International
Volume 2015 (2015), Article ID 185891, 6 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/185891
Research Article

Intellectual Impairment in Patients with Newly Diagnosed HIV Infection in Southwestern Nigeria

1Neurology Unit, Department of Medicine, Federal Medical Center, Owo 341, Ondo State, Nigeria
2Department of Neurology, Christian-Doppler-Klinik, Paracelsus Medical University, 5026 Salzburg, Austria
3Department of Neurology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universität München, 81675 München, Germany
4Neurology Unit, Department Medicine, University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin 300, Nigeria
5Department of Community Health, Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex, Ile-Ife 220, Osun State, Nigeria
6Department of Community Health, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife 220, Osun State, Nigeria
7Department of Community Health, Federal Medical Centre, Owo 341, Ondo State, Nigeria
8Department of Dermatology, Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex, Ile-Ife 220, Osun State, Nigeria
9Clinical Psychology Unit, Department of Mental Health, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife 220, Osun State, Nigeria

Received 5 December 2014; Accepted 17 January 2015

Academic Editor: András Palotás

Copyright © 2015 Taofiki A. Sunmonu et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Neurocognitive impairment is a detrimental complication of HIV infection. Here, we characterized the intellectual performance of patients with newly diagnosed HIV infection in southwestern Nigeria. We conducted a prospective study at Owo Federal Medical Center by using the adapted Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS). The raw scores were converted to standardized scores (z-scores) and correlated with clinical and laboratory findings. Fifty-eight HIV positive patients were recruited; 72% were in WHO stages 3 and 4. We detected a high rate of intellectual impairment in HIV positive patients and controls (63.8% and 10%, resp.; ). HIV positive patients performed worse throughout the subtests of both verbal and performance intelligence quotients. Presence of opportunistic infections was associated with worse performance in the similarities and digit symbol tests and performance and full scale scores. Lower body weight correlated with poor performance in different WAIS subtests. The high rate of advanced disease stage warrants measures aimed at earlier diagnosis and treatment. Assessment of neurocognitive performance at diagnosis may offer the opportunity to improve functioning in daily life and counteract disease progression.