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BioMed Research International
Volume 2015, Article ID 187819, 7 pages
Research Article

Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms Are Associated with Increased Risk of Dementia among the Elderly: A Nationwide Study

1Department of Geriatrics and Gerontology, Chi Mei Medical Center, 901 Zhong-Hua Road, Yongkang District, Tainan 710, Taiwan
2Department of Family Medicine, Chi Mei Medical Center, Tainan 710, Taiwan
3Department of Medical Research, Chi Mei Medical Center, Tainan 710, Taiwan
4Division of Urogynecology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Chi Mei Medical Center, Tainan 710, Taiwan
5Center of General Education, Chia Nan University of Pharmacy and Science, Tainan 717, Taiwan
6Department of Hospital and Health Care Administration, Chia Nan University of Pharmacy and Science, Tainan 717, Taiwan
7Department of Emergency Medicine, Chi Mei Medical Center, Tainan 710, Taiwan
8Department of Child Care and Education, Southern Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Tainan 710, Taiwan
9Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 704, Taiwan

Received 4 August 2014; Accepted 22 September 2014

Academic Editor: Shih-Bin Su

Copyright © 2015 Chi-Hsiang Chiang et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Studies show a strong association between dementia and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). The aim of this study was to investigate whether LUTS are a risk factor for cognitive impairment. We enrolled 50-year-old and older subjects with LUTS (LUTS[+]) () and controls without LUTS (LUTS[−]) () from Taiwan’s National Health Insurance Research Database. LUTS, dementia, and other confounding factors are defined by International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification Codes. Participants were recruited from 2000 to 2004 and then followed up until death or the end of 2011. The outcome was the onset of dementia, which was assessed using Poisson regression analysis, Cox hazards models, and Kaplan-Meier survival curves. The incidence of dementia was significantly higher in the LUTS[+] group than in the LUTS[−] group (124.76 versus 77.59/1000 person-years). The increased risk of dementia related to LUTS remained significant after adjustment for potential confounders (adjusted hazard ratio (AHR): 1.61, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.47–1.76, ) and higher than that related to cerebrovascular disease (AHR: 1.43, 95% CI 1.26–1.61, ). The outcome suggests the need for early screening and appropriate intervention to help prevent cognitive impairment of patients with LUTS.