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BioMed Research International
Volume 2015, Article ID 192420, 12 pages
Review Article

Interplay of the Gastric Pathogen Helicobacter pylori with Toll-Like Receptors

1Department of Biology, Division of Microbiology, Friedrich Alexander University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Staudtstraße 5, 91058 Erlangen, Germany
2School of Medicine & Dentistry, Institute of Medical Sciences, Division of Applied Medicine, Aberdeen University, Foresterhill, Aberdeen AB25 2ZD, UK

Received 14 November 2014; Accepted 29 December 2014

Academic Editor: Shigeru Kamiya

Copyright © 2015 Suneesh Kumar Pachathundikandi et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are crucial for pathogen recognition and downstream signaling to induce effective immunity. The gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori is a paradigm of persistent bacterial infections and chronic inflammation in humans. The chronicity of inflammation during H. pylori infection is related to the manipulation of regulatory cytokines. In general, the early detection of H. pylori by TLRs and other pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) is believed to induce a regulatory cytokine or chemokine profile that eventually blocks the resolution of inflammation. H. pylori factors such as LPS, HSP-60, NapA, DNA, and RNA are reported in various studies to be recognized by specific TLRs. However, H. pylori flagellin evades the recognition of TLR5 by possessing a conserved N-terminal motif. Activation of TLRs and resulting signal transduction events lead to the production of pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators through activation of NF-κB, MAP kinases, and IRF signaling pathways. The genetic polymorphisms of these important PRRs are also implicated in the varied outcome and disease progression. Hence, the interplay of TLRs and bacterial factors highlight the complexity of innate immune recognition and immune evasion as well as regulated processes in the progression of associated pathologies. Here we will review this important aspect of H. pylori infection.