Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
BioMed Research International
Volume 2015 (2015), Article ID 192829, 7 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/192829
Review Article

Invasive versus Non Invasive Methods Applied to Mummy Research: Will This Controversy Ever Be Solved?

1Department of Histology and Embryology, Medical School, National Kapodistrian University of Athens, 75 M. Asias Street, 11527 Athens, Greece
2The Ancient Egypt Society of Western Australia Inc., P.O. Box 103, Ballajura, WA 6066, Australia
3Division of Paleopathology, Institute of Forensic Science, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-799, Republic of Korea
4Department of Public Health and Paediatric Sciences, Legal Medicine Section, University of Turin, Corso Galileo Galilei 22, 10126 Turin, Italy
5Center for Ecological and Evolutionary Synthesis (CEES), Department of Biosciences, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1066, Blindern, 0316 Oslo, Norway
6Anthropologie Bioculturelle, Droit, Ethique et Santé, Faculté de Médecine-Nord, Aix-Marseille Université, 15 boulevard Pierre Dramard, 13344 Marseille Cedex 15, France

Received 18 December 2014; Accepted 21 April 2015

Academic Editor: Timothy G. Bromage

Copyright © 2015 Despina Moissidou et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. D. C. F. Harwood-Nash, “Computed tomography of ancient Egyptian mummies,” Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography, vol. 3, no. 6, pp. 768–773, 1979. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. A. R. David, The Manchester Museum Mummy Project, Manchester University Press, Manchester, UK, 1979.
  3. D.-S. Lim, I. S. Lee, K.-J. Choi et al., “The potential for non-invasive study of mummies: validation of the use of computerized tomography by post factum dissection and histological examination of a 17th century female Korean mummy,” Journal of Anatomy, vol. 213, no. 4, pp. 482–495, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. A. D. Wade and A. J. Nelson, “Radiological evaluation of the evisceration tradition in ancient Egyptian mummies,” HOMO—Journal of Comparative Human Biology, vol. 64, no. 1, pp. 1–28, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. S. Ikram, Death and Burial in Ancient Egypt, Longman, Harlow, UK, 2003.
  6. N. Shved, C. Haas, C. Papageorgopoulou et al., “Post mortem DNA degradation of human tissue experimentally mummified in salt,” PLoS ONE, vol. 9, no. 10, Article ID e110753, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  7. B. Brier and R. S. Wade, “The use of natron in human mummification: a modern experiment,” Zeitschrift für Ägyptische Sprache und Altertumskunde, vol. 124, no. 2, pp. 89–100, 1997. View at Google Scholar
  8. S. A. Buckley and R. P. Evershed, “Organic chemistry of embalming agents in Pharaonic and Graeco-Roman mummies,” Nature, vol. 413, no. 6858, pp. 837–841, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. S. Wisseman, “Preserved for the afterlife,” Nature, vol. 413, no. 6858, pp. 783–784, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. R. Gupta, Y. Markowitz, L. Berman, and P. Chapman, “High-resolution imaging of an ancient Egyptian mummified head: new insights into the mummification process,” American Journal of Neuroradiology, vol. 29, no. 4, pp. 705–713, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. A. D. Wade, G. J. Garvin, J. H. Hurnanen et al., “Scenes from the past: multidetector CT of Egyptian mummies of the Redpath Museum,” Radiographics, vol. 32, no. 4, pp. 1235–1250, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. J. J. O'Brien, J. J. Battista, C. Romagnoli, and R. K. Chhem, “CT imaging of human mummies: a critical review of the literature (1979–2005),” International Journal of Osteoarchaeology, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 90–98, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. A. S. Wilson, “Digitised diseases: preserving precious remains,” British Archaeology, vol. 136, pp. 36–41, 2014. View at Google Scholar
  14. L. Pacey, “Ancient mummies reveal impact of dental disease,” British Dental Journal, vol. 216, no. 12, p. 663, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  15. R. Ciranni, F. Garbini, E. Nerie, L. Melai, L. Giusti, and G. Fornaciari, “The ’Braids lady’ of Arezzo: a case of rheumatoid arthritis in a 16th century mummy,” Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology, vol. 20, no. 6, pp. 745–752, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. W. K. Taconis and G. J. R. Maat, “Radiological findings in the human mummies and human heads,” in Egyptian Mummies: Radiological Atlas of the Collections in the National Museum of Antiquities at Leiden, J. R. Maarten, W. K. Taconis, and G. J. R. Maat, Eds., Brepols, Turnhout, Belgium, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  17. G. Fornaciari, M. Castagna, A. Naccarato, P. Collecchi, A. Tognetti, and G. Bevilacqua, “Adenocarcinoma in the mummy of Ferrante I of Aragon, King of Naples,” Paleopathology Newsletter, vol. 82, pp. 7–11, 1993. View at Google Scholar
  18. A. H. Allam, R. C. Thompson, L. S. Wann, M. I. Miyamoto, and G. S. Thomas, “Computed tomographic assessment of atherosclerosis in ancient Egyptian mummies,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 302, no. 19, pp. 2091–2094, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. R. C. Thompson, A. H. Allam, G. P. Lombardi et al., “Atherosclerosis across 4000 years of human history: the Horus study of four ancient populations,” The Lancet, vol. 381, no. 9873, pp. 1211–1222, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. N. Lynnerup, “Mummies,” Yearbook of Physical Anthropology, vol. 50, pp. 162–190, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. L. Öhrström, A. Bitzer, M. Walther, and F. J. Rühli, “Technical note: terahertz imaging of ancient mummies and bone,” American Journal of Physical Anthropology, vol. 142, no. 3, pp. 497–500, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. C. Papageorgopoulou, K. Rentsch, M. Raghavan et al., “Preservation of cell structures in a medieval infant brain: a paleohistological, paleogenetic, radiological and physico-chemical study,” NeuroImage, vol. 50, no. 3, pp. 893–901, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. D. H. Shin, I. S. Lee, M. J. Kim et al., “Magnetic resonance imaging performed on a hydrated mummy of medieval Korea,” Journal of Anatomy, vol. 216, no. 3, pp. 329–334, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. H. Piepenbrink, J. Frahm, A. Haase, and D. Matthaei, “Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging of mummified corpses,” American Journal of Physical Anthropology, vol. 70, no. 1, pp. 27–28, 1986. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. F. J. Rühli, R. K. Chhem, and T. Böni, “Diagnostic paleoradiology of mummified tissue: interpretation and pitfalls,” Canadian Association of Radiologists Journal, vol. 55, no. 4, pp. 218–227, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. S. J. Karlik, R. Bartha, K. Kennedy, and R. Chhem, “MRI and multinuclear MR spectroscopy of 3,200-year-old Egyptian mummy brain,” American Journal of Roentgenology, vol. 189, no. 2, pp. W105–W110, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. L. Zweifel, T. Büni, and F. J. Rühli, “Evidence-based palaeopathology: meta-analysis of PubMed-listed scientific studies on ancient Egyptian mummies,” HOMO, vol. 60, no. 5, pp. 405–427, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. J. Wanek, R. Speller, and F. J. Rühli, “Direct action of radiation on mummified cells: modeling of computed tomography by Monte Carlo algorithms,” Radiation and Environmental Biophysics, vol. 52, no. 3, pp. 397–410, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. E.-J. Lee, C. S. Oh, S. G. Yim et al., “Collaboration of archaeologists, historians and bioarchaeologists during removal of clothing from Korean Mummy of Joseon Dynasty,” International Journal of Historical Archaeology, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 94–118, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. M. R. Zimmerman and A. C. Aufderheide, “The frozen family of Utqiagvik: the autopsy findings,” Arctic Anthropology, vol. 21, pp. 53–64, 1984. View at Google Scholar
  31. M. A. Ruffer, “Pathological notes on the royal mummies of the Cairo Museum,” in Studies in the Paleopathology of Egypt, R. L. Moodle, Ed., pp. 166–178, University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Ill, USA, 1921. View at Google Scholar
  32. P. J. Turner and D. B. Holtom, “The use of a fabric softener in the reconstitution of mummified tissue prior to paraffin wax sectioning for light microscopical examination,” Stain Technology, vol. 56, no. 1, pp. 35–38, 1981. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. E. Fulcheri, E. Rabino Massa, and C. Fenoglio, “Improvement in the histological technique for mummified tissue,” Verhandlungen der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Pathologie, vol. 69, p. 471, 1985. View at Google Scholar
  34. A.-M. Mekota and M. Vermehren, “Determination of optimal rehydration, fixation and staining methods for histological and immunohistochemical analysis of mummified soft tissues,” Biotechnic & Histochemistry, vol. 80, no. 1, pp. 7–13, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. A. C. Aufderheide, “History of mummy studies,” in The Scientific Study of Mummies, A. C. Aufderheide, Ed., pp. 1–17, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 2003. View at Google Scholar
  36. M. Manialawi, R. Meligy, and M. Bucaille, “Endoscopic examination of Egyptian mummies,” Endoscopy, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 191–194, 1978. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. G. Castillo-Rojas, M. A. Cerbón, and Y. López-Vidal, “Presence of Helicobacter pylori in a Mexican pre-columbian mummy,” BMC Microbiology, vol. 8, article 119, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. E. Tapp, “Histology and histopathology of the Manchester mummies,” in Science in Egyptology, A. R. David, Ed., pp. 347–350, Manchester University Press, Manchester, UK, 1986. View at Google Scholar
  39. F. Collini, S. A. Andreola, G. Gentile, M. Marchesi, E. Muccino, and R. Zoja, “Preservation of histological structure of cells in human skin presenting mummification and corification processes by Sandison's rehydrating solution,” Forensic Science International, vol. 244, pp. 207–212, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  40. G. Grévin, R. Lagier, and C.-A. Baud, “Metastatic carcinoma of presumed prostatic origin in cremated bones from the first century A.D,” Virchows Archiv, vol. 431, no. 3, pp. 211–214, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. G. Kahila Bar-Gal, M. J. Kim, A. Klein et al., “Tracing hepatitis B virus to the 16th century in a Korean mummy,” Hepatology, vol. 56, no. 5, pp. 1671–1680, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. F. Musshoff, C. Brockmann, B. Madea, W. Rosendahl, and D. Piombino-Mascali, “Ethyl glucuronide findings in hair samples from the mummies of the Capuchin Catacombs of Palermo,” Forensic Science International, vol. 232, no. 1–3, pp. 213–217, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. A. H. Thompson, A. S. Wilson, and J. R. Ehleringer, “Hair as a geochemical recorder: ancient to modern,” in Treatise on Geochemistry (Volume 14): Archaeology & Anthropology, T. E. Cerling, Ed., pp. 371–393, Elsevier, Cambridge, UK, 2nd edition, 2014. View at Google Scholar
  44. A. S. Wilson, E. L. Brown, C. Villa et al., “Archaeological, radiological, and biological evidence offer insight into Inca child sacrifice,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 110, no. 33, pp. 13322–13327, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. R. Bianucci, M. Jeziorska, R. Lallo et al., “A pre-hispanic head,” PLoS ONE, vol. 3, no. 4, Article ID e2053, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. G. Lombardi, A. Lanzirotti, C. Qualls, F. Socola, A.-M. Ali, and O. Appenzeller, “Five hundred years of mercury exposure and adaptation,” Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology, vol. 2012, Article ID 472858, 10 pages, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. A. Lanzirotti, R. Bianucci, R. LeGeros et al., “Assessing heavy metal exposure in Renaissance Europe using synchrotron microbeam techniques,” Journal of Archaeological Science, vol. 52, pp. 204–217, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  48. V. A. Sawicki, M. J. Allison, H. P. Dalton, and A. Pezzia, “Presence of Salmonella antigens in feces from a Peruvian mummy,” Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine: Journal of Urban Health, vol. 52, no. 7, pp. 805–813, 1976. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. R. Bianucci, G. Mattutino, R. Lallo et al., “Immunological evidence of Plasmodium falciparum infection in an Egyptian child mummy from the early dynastic period,” Journal of Archaeological Science, vol. 35, no. 7, pp. 1880–1885, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. A. Corthals, A. Koller, D. W. Martin et al., “Detecting the immune system response of a 500 year-Old Inca Mummy,” PLoS ONE, vol. 7, no. 7, Article ID e41244, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. W. L. Salo, A. C. Aufderheide, J. Buikstra, and T. A. Holcomb, “Identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA in a pre-Columbian Peruvian mummy,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 91, no. 6, pp. 2091–2094, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. A. G. Nerlich, C. J. Haas, A. Zink, U. Szeimies, and H. G. Hagedorn, “Molecular evidence for tuberculosis in an ancient Egyptian mummy,” The Lancet, vol. 350, no. 9088, p. 1404, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. É. Crubézy, B. Ludes, J. D. Poveda, J. Clayton, B. Crouau-Roy, and D. Montagnon, “Identification of Mycobacterium DNA in an Egyptian Pott's disease of 5400 years old,” Comptes Rendus de Académie des Sciences—Serie III, vol. 321, no. 11, pp. 941–951, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. A. Zink, C. J. Haas, U. Reischl, U. Szeimies, and A. G. Nerlich, “Molecular analysis of skeletal tuberculosis in an ancient Egyptian population,” Journal of Medical Microbiology, vol. 50, no. 4, pp. 355–366, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. A. R. Zink, W. Grabner, U. Reischl, H. Wolf, and A. G. Nerlich, “Molecular study on human tuberculosis in three geographically distinct and time delineated populations from Ancient Egypt,” Epidemiology and Infection, vol. 130, no. 2, pp. 239–249, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. A. R. Zink, C. Sola, U. Reischl et al., “Characterization of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex DNAs from Egyptian mummies by spoligotyping,” Journal of Clinical Microbiology, vol. 41, no. 1, pp. 359–367, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. A. R. Zink and A. G. Nerlich, “Molecular analyses of the ‘Pharaos:’ feasibility of molecular studies in ancient Egyptian material,” American Journal of Physical Anthropology, vol. 121, no. 2, pp. 109–111, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. A. R. Zink and A. G. Nerlich, “Long-term survival of ancient DNA in Egypt: reply to Gilbert et al,” American Journal of Physical Anthropology, vol. 128, pp. 115–118, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  59. A. R. Zink, M. Spigelman, B. Schraut, C. L. Greenblatt, A. G. Nerlich, and H. D. Donoghue, “Leishmaniasis in Ancient Egypt and Upper Nubia,” Emerging Infectious Diseases, vol. 12, no. 10, pp. 1616–1617, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. A. C. Aufderheide, W. Salo, M. Madden et al., “A 9,000-year record of Chagas' disease,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 101, no. 7, pp. 2034–2039, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. A. G. Nerlich, B. Schraut, S. Dittrich, T. Jelinek, and A. R. Zink, “Plasmodium falciparum in Ancient Egypt,” Emerging Infectious Diseases, vol. 14, no. 8, pp. 1317–1319, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. Z. Hawass, Y. Z. Gad, S. Ismail et al., “Ancestry and pathology in King Tutankhamun's family,” The Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 303, no. 7, pp. 638–647, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. H. D. Donoghue, O. Y.-C. Lee, D. E. Minnikin, G. S. Besra, J. H. Taylor, and M. Spigelman, “Tuberculosis in Dr Granville's mummy: a molecular re-examination of the earliest known Egyptian mummy to be scientifically examined and given a medical diagnosis,” Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, vol. 277, no. 1678, pp. 51–56, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. H. D. Donoghue, “Insights gained from palaeomicrobiology into ancient and modern tuberculosis,” Clinical Microbiology and Infection, vol. 17, no. 6, pp. 821–829, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. A. Lalremruata, M. Ball, R. Bianucci et al., “Molecular identification of falciparum malaria and human tuberculosis co-infections in mummies from the Fayum Depression (Lower Egypt),” PLoS ONE, vol. 8, no. 4, Article ID e60307, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. J. Z.-M. Chan, M. J. Sergeant, O. Y.-C. Lee et al., “Metagenomic analysis of tuberculosis in a mummy,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 369, no. 3, pp. 289–290, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. R. Khairat, M. Ball, C.-C. H. Chang et al., “First insights into the metagenome of Egyptian mummies using next-generation sequencing,” Journal of Applied Genetics, vol. 54, no. 3, pp. 309–325, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. E. Anastasiou and P. D. Mitchell, “Palaeopathology and genes: investigating the genetics of infectious diseases in excavated human skeletal remains and mummies from past populations,” Gene, vol. 528, no. 1, pp. 33–40, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. M. T. P. Gilbert, I. Barnes, M. J. Collins et al., “Long-term survival of ancient DNA in Egypt: response to Zink and Nerlich,” American Journal of Physical Anthropology, vol. 128, no. 1, pp. 115–118, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  70. E. D. Lorenzen and E. Willerslev, “King Tutankhamun's family and demise,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 303, no. 24, pp. 2471–2475, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  71. J. Marchant, “Ancient DNA: curse of the Pharaoh's DNA,” Nature, vol. 472, no. 7344, pp. 404–406, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  72. G. Piñar, D. Piombino-Mascali, F. Maixner, A. Zink, and K. Sterflinger, “Microbial survey of the mummies from the Capuchin Catacombs of Palermo, Italy: biodeterioration risk and contamination of the indoor air,” FEMS Microbiology Ecology, vol. 86, no. 2, pp. 341–356, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  73. J. Koller, U. Baumer, Y. Kaup, H. Etspuler, and U. Weser, “Embalming was used in Old Kingdom,” Nature, vol. 391, no. 6665, pp. 343–344, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  74. R. P. Evershed, K. I. Arnot, J. Collister, G. Eglinton, and S. Charters, “Application of isotope ratio monitoring gas chromatography–mass spectrometry to the analysis of organic residues of archaeological origin,” The Analyst, vol. 119, no. 5, pp. 909–914, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  75. S. A. Buckley, A. W. Stott, and R. P. Evershed, “Studies of organic residues from ancient Egyptian mummies using high temperature-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and sequential thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry,” Analyst, vol. 124, no. 4, pp. 443–452, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  76. S. A. Buckley, K. A. Clark, and R. P. Evershed, “Complex organic chemical balms of Pharaonic animal mummies,” Nature, vol. 431, no. 7006, pp. 294–299, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  77. J. Jones, T. F. Higham, R. Oldfield, T. P. O'Connor, S. A. Buckley, and L. Bondioli, “Evidence for prehistoric origins of Egyptian mummification in late Neolithic burials,” PLoS ONE, vol. 9, no. 8, Article ID e103608, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  78. S. Buckley, D. Usai, T. Jakob, A. Radini, K. Hardy, and D. Guatelli-Steinberg, “Dental calculus reveals unique insights into food items, cooking and plant processing in prehistoric central Sudan,” PLoS ONE, vol. 9, no. 7, Article ID e100808, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  79. A. C. Aufderheide, L. R. Cartmell, M. Zlonis, and P. Horne, “Chemical dietary reconstruction of Greco-Roman mummies at Egypt's Dakhleh Oasis,” The Journal of the Society for the Study of Egyptian Antiquities, vol. 30, pp. 1–10, 2003. View at Google Scholar
  80. H. Pringle, The Mummy Congress. Science, Obsession, and the Everlasting Dead, Hyperion, New York, NY, USA, 2001.
  81. S. Holm, “The privacy of Tutankhamen—utilising the genetic information in stored tissue samples,” Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics, vol. 22, no. 5, pp. 437–449, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  82. R. Downey, Riddle of the Bones: Politics, Science, Race, and the Story of Kennewick Man, Springer, Copernicus, New York, NY, USA, 2000.
  83. I. M. Kaufmann and F. J. Rühli, “Without ‘informed consent’? Ethics and ancient mummy research,” Journal of Medical Ethics, vol. 36, no. 10, pp. 608–613, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  84. P. Lambert-Zazulak, “The international ancient Egyptian mummy tissue bank at the Manchester Museum,” Antiquity, vol. 74, no. 283, pp. 44–48, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus