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BioMed Research International
Volume 2015, Article ID 215135, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/215135
Review Article

Molecular Biology in Pediatric High-Grade Glioma: Impact on Prognosis and Treatment

1Department of Pediatric Oncology, A. Gemelli Hospital, Catholic University of Rome, Largo A Gemelli, 1, 00168 Rome, Italy
2Anatomic Pathology, Catholic University, “A. Gemelli” Hospital, 00168 Rome, Italy

Received 26 August 2014; Accepted 4 November 2014

Academic Editor: Murat Gokden

Copyright © 2015 Daniela Rizzo et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

High-grade gliomas are the main cause of death in children with brain tumours. Despite recent advances in cancer therapy, their prognosis remains poor and the treatment is still challenging. To date, surgery followed by radiotherapy and temozolomide is the standard therapy. However, increasing knowledge of glioma biology is starting to impact drug development towards targeted therapies. The identification of agents directed against molecular targets aims at going beyond the traditional therapeutic approach in order to develop a personalized therapy and improve the outcome of pediatric high-grade gliomas. In this paper, we critically review the literature regarding the genetic abnormalities implicated in the pathogenesis of pediatric malignant gliomas and the current development of molecularly targeted therapies. In particular, we analyse the impact of molecular biology on the prognosis and treatment of pediatric high-grade glioma, comparing it to that of adult gliomas.