BioMed Research International / 2015 / Article / Tab 1

Review Article

In Vivo Anti-Candida Activity of Phenolic Extracts and Compounds: Future Perspectives Focusing on Effective Clinical Interventions

Table 1

Phenolic extracts with in vivo activity against Candida species.

FamilySpeciesPartPreparationConditionCandida spp.Animal modelExposureDosesBioactiveRef.

AcanthaceaeJusticia flava (Forssk.) VahlLeavesMethanol extractWound healingC. albicansSprague-Dawley rats24 hours, 24 days7.5% w/w extract aqueous creamAlkaloids, flavonoids, steroids, carbohydrates, sapogenetic glycosides, and tannins [73]

AnacardiaceaeLannea welwitschii (Hiern) Engl.LeavesMethanol extractWound healingC. albicansSprague-Dawley rats24 hours, 24 days7.5% w/w extract aqueous creamAlkaloids, flavonoids, steroids, carbohydrates, sapogenetic glycosides, and tannins [73]

ArecaceaeElaeis guineensis Jacq LeavesMethanol extractAntifungal potentialC. albicansSwiss albino miceOnce daily during 7 daysOral administration: 2.5 g/kg body weightPhenols[76]

BignoniaceaePyrostegia venusta MiersFlowersMethanol extractAntimicrobial and wound healing potentialC. albicans and C. tropicanaWistar rats19 days100 mg/kg body weightn.d.[74]

japonica Thunb.
Flowering aerial partsEthanol extractAntiwound infection, repair, and contractionCandida albicans, C. tropicalisWistar rats15 days10% (w/w) LJEE ointmentChlorogenic acid [69]

CombretaceaeCombretum albopunctatum Suesseng 
Combretum imberbe Wawra 
Combretum nelsonii Duemmer 
Terminalia sericea Burch ex DC
LeavesAcetone extractWound healing and antifungal potentialC. albicansImmunosuppressed Wistar rats3 times a week, during 17 days20% in aqueous creamn.d.[71]

EriocaulaceaeSyngonanthus nitens (Bong.) Ruhl.ScapesMethanol extractVulvovaginal candidiasisC. albicansWistar rats2 times per day, 7 daysCream with 0.5%, 1.0%, and 2.0% of extractFlavonoids, flavone derivatives [70]

LeguminosaeCassia fistula Linn.SeedsMethanol extractAnticandidal potentialC. albicansSwiss albino miceOnce daily, during 3 days2.5 g/kg body weight (intraperitoneal)n.d.[77]

MeliaceaeSwietenia mahogani (Linn.) Jacq.SeedsMethanol extractAntifungal potentialC. albicansMice7 days2.5 g/kg of extract (intraperitoneal)Saponins, phenols, volatile oils, alkaloids, anthraquinones, and terpenoids[75]

MoraceaeFicus glomerata Roxb.Fruit and barkMethanol extractImmunomodulatory potentialC. albicansSwiss albino mice13 days250 and 500 mg/kg p.oCarbohydrates, glycosides, wax, steroids, saponins, and tannins[66]

OlacaceaeOlax subscorpioidea var. subscorpioidea Oliv.FruitsMethanol-dichloromethane (3 : 1 v/v) extractAnti-Candida potential (systemic candidiasis)C. albicansFemale albino Wistar rats3 days0.5, 1 and 2 g/kg of body weight, i.v. administrationn.d.[78]

ParmeliaceaePseudevernia furfuracea (L.) ZopfLichens (thallus)Methanol, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, and n-butanol extractsAnti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, and wound healing potentialC. albicans, C. dubliniensis, and C. kruseiSprague-Dawley rats and Swiss albino miceBetween 60 min and 9 days, according to the studied bioactivity1Oral administration and topical useIsolated compounds: atraric acid, mixture of methyl hematommate and methyl chlorohematommate[72]

PoaceaePhyllostachys bambusoides Siebold & Zucc.LeavesEthyl acetate fraction of the alcoholic extractImmunomodulatory potentialC. albicansBALB/C mice5 daysOral administration: 50–200 mg/Kg body weightIsoorientin, orientin, and isovitexin[67]

PolygonaceaePersicaria senegalensis (Meisn.) SojákLeavesCooked leaves
Leaf powder
Anti-Candida activity (subclinical mastitis)C. albicansLactating cows of three farms5 days1.5 kg/day
0.77 kg/day

PunicaceaePunica granatum L.PeelsAqueous: methanol (75%) extractWound healing potentialC. albicans and C. glabrataGuinea pigsOnce daily during 10 days5% (w/w) methanolic extract based ointment, using soft white paraffin, as vehicleEllagitannins (punicalagin A, punicalagin B, gallic acid, and ellagic acid), followed by anthocyanidins[68]

SalvadoraceaeSalvadora persica L.Chewing sticksMethanol extractOral health of children presenting decaysC. albicans and Candida spp.School children aged between 6 and 12 years1 weekMouthwashPhenolic compounds[81]

VerbanaceaeClerodendron splendens G. DonPlant materialMethanolic extractWound healing and antifungal effectsC. albicansSprague-Dawley rats9 days100 mg of ointment (33.3% w/w C. splendens extract in simple ointment BP), twice dailyReducing sugars, phytosterols, tannins, terpenoids, alkaloids, and flavonoids[90]

VitaceaeVitis vinifera L.SeedsEthanol : water (7 : 3 v/v) extractAntifungal potential (vaginal candidiasis model)C. albicansCD1 miceEvery two days, until day +810 µL/mouse (50 mg/mL) intravaginalMixture of monomeric, oligomeric, and polymeric flavan-3-ols[79]

ZygophyllaceaeLarrea divaricata Cav.Leaves and tender branches3 fractions of the aqueous extractImmunomodulatory potential (innate immunity enhancer)C. albicansRockland micetwice in a 48-hour period0.5, 5 and 15 mg kg−1 of fractions, intraperitonealn.d.[65]

Anti-inflammatory: every 90 min during 6 h after induced inflammation, antinociceptive: 60 min after oral administration of test samples, counted for the following 15 min (starting 5 min after the PBQ injection), wound healing activity: once a day, during 9 days, and n.d.: not determined/detailed.