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BioMed Research International
Volume 2015, Article ID 265260, 16 pages
Review Article

New Insights in the Diagnosis and Treatment of Heart Failure

1Division of Cardiology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
2DIBINEM, University of Bologna, 40126 Bologna, Italy
3Heart Failure Unit, Cardiology Department, Guglielmo da Saliceto Hospital, 29121 Piacenza, Italy
4Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, University Hospital Lausanne, 1011 Lausanne, Switzerland
5Cardiac Surgery Unit, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Parma, Via A. Gramsci 14, 43126 Parma, Italy

Received 21 April 2015; Accepted 21 June 2015

Academic Editor: Maciej Banach

Copyright © 2015 Giulio Agnetti et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of mortality in the US and in westernized countries with ischemic heart disease accounting for the majority of these deaths. Paradoxically, the improvements in the medical and surgical treatments of acute coronary syndrome are leading to an increasing number of “survivors” who are then developing heart failure. Despite considerable advances in its management, the gold standard for the treatment of end-stage heart failure patients remains heart transplantation. Nevertheless, this procedure can be offered only to a small percentage of patients who could benefit from a new heart due to the limited availability of donor organs. The aim of this review is to evaluate the safety and efficacy of innovative approaches in the diagnosis and treatment of patients refractory to standard medical therapy and excluded from cardiac transplantation lists.