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BioMed Research International
Volume 2015 (2015), Article ID 282405, 9 pages
Review Article

Ocular Manifestations and Therapeutic Options in Patients with Familial Amyloid Polyneuropathy: A Systematic Review

1Centro Hospitalar e Universitário de Coimbra, Avenida Bissaya Barreto-Praceta Prof. Mota Pinto, 3000-075 Coimbra, Portugal
2Faculty of Medicine, University of Coimbra, Rua Larga, 3004-504 Coimbra, Portugal

Received 22 May 2015; Accepted 27 July 2015

Academic Editor: María D. Pinazo-Durán

Copyright © 2015 A. C. Martins et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Purpose. This paper aims to review the morphological and functional characteristics of patients affected by familial amyloid polyneuropathy (FAP), with greater focus on type I and its progression after liver transplantation. We also analyse therapeutic options for the ophthalmic manifestations. Methods. The literature from 2002 through 2015 was reviewed, with a total of 45 articles studied, using the key terms related to amyloidosis and its therapeutic approaches. Information was collated, evaluated, critically assessed, and then summarised in its present form. Pathophysiology and Treatment. FAP results from mutation of the transthyretin gene, with Val30Met being the most frequent substitution. The symptoms are those typical of a sensorimotor autonomic neuropathy and can be halted with liver transplantation. Nowadays there are new medical therapies that delay the progression of the systemic neuropathy. However, there are still no options to avoid ocular disease. Conclusion. The main ocular manifestations in patients with FAP type I are amyloid deposition in the vitreous, dry eye, and secondary glaucoma. Despite liver transplantation, eye synthesis of amyloid persists and is associated with progressive ocular manifestations, which require continued ophthalmologic follow-up. New therapeutic strategies are therefore needed, particularly to target the ocular synthesis of the abnormal protein.