Table 3: Case series/report in the use of MSCs for oral bone tissue regeneration.

ReferenceStudy designStem cell typeCollectionSubcultureOriginCarrierDefect typeGraft locationCoverTime for analysisAnalysisPrimary outcomesImplantsRestorationFollow-up after restorationImplant survival rateComplications

Behnia et al. [24]CSMSCBMAYes (2 w, manual, no induction)IB2DBM + calcium sulfateCleft palateAMNO 4 mCTOronasal fistula closure; 25.6–34.5% bone defect fillNoNoN/AN/AN/S

Behnia et al. [25]CSMSCBMAYes (2 w, manual, no induction)IB4HA/TCP + PDGFCleft palateAMFC3 mCTOronasal fistula closure; 51.3% bone defect fillNoNoN/AN/AN/S

Cerruti et al. [26]CSMNCBMANo (whole aspirate)IB and SB32AB + PPP + PRPVertical, horizontal, sinus liftAM and PMN/S4 mH + CTWidth: 6–14 mm (AM); height: ≈10 mm (AM) and 6 -> 15 mm (PM)YesYes4 years100%1 graft not integrated; 1 sinus infection

Hernández-Alfaro et al. [27]CRMSCBMANo (BMAC)IB1DBB + BMP-2Ameloblastoma resectionPMnCM9 mCT + HAdequate bone formationYesYes1 year100%N/S

Hibi et al. [28]CRMSCBMAYes (4 w, manual, osteogenic induction with 100 nM dexamethasone, 10 mM b-glycerophosphate, and 50 mg/mL ascorbic acid-2- phosphate)IB1PRPCleft palateAMTM3–6–9 mCT79.1% bone coverageNoNoN/SN/AN/S

Lee et al. [29]CRMSCBMAYes (4 w, manual, osteogenic induction by 50 μg/mL of L-ascorbic acid, 10-mmol/L glycerol phosphate, and -mol/L dexamethasone)IB1FDAB + FibrinHemangioma resectionPMnTM12 mCT + HNew bone formation, graft contains live osteocytes, enough bone height for implant placementYesNoN/SN/SN/S

Meijer et al. [30]CRMSCBMAYes (manual, osteogenic induction by dexamethasone)IB6HASinus lift and other defectsPM and PMnNO4 m biopsy/3, 6, 9, 15 m RXRX + Clinical data + HmAdequate bone mainly induced by the carrier/adequate radiographic bone reconstructionYesYes15 mN/S1 implant failure

Sándor et al. [31]CRASCSATYes (3 w, manual, no induction)AAW1B-TCP + BMP-2Ameloblastoma resectionAMnNO10 mPanoramic RX + HmSuccessful bone reconstruction, implant placement, and prosthetic rehabilitationYesYesN/SN/SN/S

Sándor et al. [32]CSASCSATYes (3 w, manual, no induction)AAW3B-TCP + BMP-2Ameloblastoma resectionMnTM1w, 1–12 mClinical data + RXSuccessful bone reconstruction, uneventful healing2 patients (7 implants)Yes27–51 m86%N/S

Sauerbier et al. [33]CRMSCBMANo (BMAC)IB2 patientsBBMVertical, horizontalPMCM7 m or 4 mH + RX51.6% and 20.0% new bone formation, respectivelyYesYes2 y100%NO

Schmelzeisen et al. [34]CRN/SBMANo (BMAC)IB1 (2 sinuses)BBMSinus liftPMN/S3 mHm29.1% BBM; 26.9% NBFNoNoN/SN/AN/S

Shayesteh et al. [35]CRMSCBMAYes (4 w, manual, no osteogenic induction)IB7HA/TCPSinus liftPMCM3 m, 1 yRX + HmNew bone: 41.34%; radiographic bone height: 2.25–12.08–10.83 (baseline-postgraft-1 y)Yes (30)Yes6 m93%2 implants lost before restoration

Smiler et al. [36]CSN/SBMANo (whole aspirate)IB5 patients (7 sites)Xenograft, allograft, or alloplastic graft (-TCP)Sinus lift or horizontal PMCM + TM4–7 mH + Hm23–45% of new bone formation, no differences between carriers are statistically reportedNoNoN/SN/AN/S

Soltan et al. [37]CSN/SBMANo (whole aspirate)IB5ABSinus lift or horizontalAM and PMN/S8–12 mH + Hm89% new vital bone (54% bone, 46% marrow)YesYesN/SN/SN/S

Soltan et al. [38]CSN/SBMANo (whole aspirate)IB2 patients/6 sitesHA or particulate allograftHorizontalPM and PMnN/S4–6 mH + Hm34–45% new bone, no statistical differences reportedYesYesN/SN/SN/S

Ueda et al. [39]CSMSCBMAYes (4 w, manual, osteogenic induction by dexamethasone, sodium -glycerophosphate, and L-ascorbic acid 2-phosphate)IB6-TCP + PRPSinus liftPMTM6 mClinical data + CT7.3 ± 4.6 mm height gainYes (20)Yes12 m100%2 sinus membranes perforation, with minor nasal bleeding

Ueda et al. [40]CSMSCBMAYes (4 w, manual, osteogenic induction by dexamethasone, sodium -glycerophosphate, and L-ascorbic acid 2-phosphate)IB14 (6 sinus lifts/8 onlay graftings)PRPSinus lift or verticalPMTitanium reinforced CM for vertical ridge augmentation4.8 mClinical data + RX8.7 mm height gain in sinus; 5 mm in ridgesYesYes2–5 y100%4 sinus membranes perforation

Wongchuensoontorn et al. [41]CRMSCBMANo (BMAC)IB1IBMn fracturePMnCM4 mPanoramic RXMandibular fracture consolidationNoNo4 mN/AN/S

Yamada et al. [42]CRMSCBMAYes (4 w, manual, osteogenic induction by 100 nM dexamethasone, 10 mM sodium β-glycerophosphate, and 25 mg/mL L-ascorbic acid 2-phosphate)IB1PRPVertical, horizontalPMnCM + TM7 mCT + H4.2 mm bone height gain, new mature bone formationYes (3)Yes2 y100%N/S

CS = case series; CR = case report; MSC = mesenchymal stem cells; MNC = mononuclear cells; ASC = adipose stem cells; N/S = not specified; BMA = bone marrow aspirate; SAT = subcutaneous adipose tissue; BMAC = bone marrow aspirate concentrate; IB = iliac bone; SB = sternum bone; AAW = anterior abdominal wall; DBM = demineralized bone marrow; HA/TCP = hidroxyapatite/tricalcium phosphate; PDGF = platelet derived growth factor; PPP = platelet-poor plasma; PRP = platelet-rich plasma; AB = allograft block; DBB = demineralized bovine bone; BBM = bovine bone marrow; IB = iliac bone; AM = anterior maxilla; PM = posterior maxilla; AMn = anterior mandible; PMn = posterior mandible; M = maxilla; Mn = mandible; CM = collagen membrane; FM = fibrin membrane; FC = fibrin clot; TM = titanium mesh; d = days; w = weeks; m = months; y = years; H = histology; Hm = histomorphometry; CT = computed tomography; RX = radiography; N/A = not applicable.