Table 3: Degree of dietary specialization of several hymenoptera species regarding their insect host and their plant host as well as examples of insect and plant hosts.

Hymenoptera speciesSpecialistGeneralist Plant species Host species References
Regarding host plantRegarding insect hostRegarding host plantRegarding insect host

Aphelinus abdominalisXGreenhouse crops, wheatCereal aphids (e.g., Sitobion avenae), greenhouse aphids (e.g., Myzus persicae and Macrosiphum euphorbiae)[103, 104]

Aphidius colemaniXWheat, cabbage, ascleipas, and othersOver 19 aphid species (e.g., Aphis spp., Myzus persicae, and Rhopalosiphum padi)[105, 106]

Aphidius funebrisXUroleucon spp.[107]

Campoletis chlorideaeXSeveral noctuid caterpillar species (e.g., Helicoverpa armigera)[108]

Campoletis sonorensisXSeveral noctuids caterpillar species[61]

Cotesia marginiventrisXSeveral, as the caterpillar species are polyphagousSeveral caterpillar genera including Heliothis spp. and Spodoptera spp.[89, 99]

Cotesia sesamiaeXWide range of stem borer species, mainly noctuid moth larvae (Busseola fusca, Sesamia calamistis, Chilo orichalcocilielus, Chilo partellus)[109]

Dacnusa sibiricaXLiriomyza spp. (e.g., Liriomyza huidobrensis, L. bryoniae, and L. trifolii)[110]

Diachasmimorpha longicaudataXTephritid fruit fly species (Anastrepha, Ceratitis,and Bactrocera)[111, 112]

Diadegma fenestraleX[71]

Lariophagus distinguendusXPoaceae and FabaceaeOver 11 different beetle species (e.g., Rhyzopertha dominica and Sitophilus granarius)[113]

Lysiphlebus testaceipesXBean, wheat, cabbage, and othersOver 9 aphid species (e.g., Aphis spp., Rhopalosiphum maidis and Toxoptera aurantii)[105, 114]

Psyttalia concolorX[101]

Telenomus podisiXParasitizing the eggs of various pentatomids in agroecosystems (e.g., Euchistus spp., Nezara viridula, Piezodorus guildinii,and P. maculiventris)[115, 116]

Anaphes ioleXXA variety of crop plantsLygus spp.[117]

Aphidius erviXXWheat, cabbage, bean, and othersOver 14 aphid species (e.g., Acyrthosiphon pisum, Sitobion avenae, and Macrosiphum euphorbiae)[105, 118]

Cotesia flavipesXXA variety of crops in the “New World”Stem borers (e.g., Diatraea saccharalis, D. grandiosella, Ostrinia nubilalis, and Chilo spp.)[119]

Diaeretiella rapaeXXWheat, cabbage, bean, asclepias, and other crop plantsOver 23 aphid species (e.g., Myzus persicae, Brevicoryne brassicae, and Sitobion avenae)[105, 120]

Diglyphus isaeaXXMainly associated with herbaceous plants18 different agromyzid species (L. sativae, e.g.)[121]

Opius dissitusXXPea, celery (L. huidobrensis), vegetable leaf (L. sativae), and bean (L. trifolii)Liriomyza huidobrensis, L. sativae, L. trifolii, and other leafminers[122]

Cotesia glomerataXXPieridae spp. (e.g., P. brassicae, P. napi,and P. rapae)[97, 98, 123, 124]

Apoanagyrus lopezi (= Epidinocarsis lopezi)XManihot esculentaPhenacoccus manihoti[125]

Hyssopus pallidusXAppleCydia molesta and Cydia pomonella[124]

Encarsia formosaXXGreenhouse crops like tomato and cucumberTrialeurodes vaporariorum and Bemisia tabaci
Alternative host: aleurodes
[126, 127]

Trissolcus basalisXXSeveralNezara viridula[128]

Roptrocerus mirusXXConifersBark beetle species[129]

Roptrocerus xylophagorumXXConifersBark beetle species[129, 130]

Anagrus nilaparvataeXXLaodelphax striatellus, Nilaparvata bakeri, Nilaparvata muiri, Nilaparvata lugens, Sogatella furcifera, Sogatella panicicola, Toya propinqua, and Toya tuberculosa[123, 131, 132]

Aphidius rhopalosiphiXPoaceae, for example, wheatAphids on Poaceae (e.g., Metopolophium dirhodum, Rhopalosiphum padi, and Sitobion avenae)[133]

Cardiochiles nigricepsXCotton, tobacco, and othersHeliothis virescens[134]

Chrysonotomyia ruforumXPinus spp.Diprionidae of pine (e.g., Diprion pini)[135]

Cotesia kariyaiXTobaccoPseudaletia separata[136]

Cotesia plutellaeXBrassicaceaePlutella xylostella[137]

Cotesia rubeculaXPieris rapae[98, 123]

Diadegma semiclausumXBrassicaceaePlutella xylostella[138, 139]

Glyptapanteles flavicoxisXLymantria dispar, L. obfuscata[140]

Microplitis croceipesXOver 100 species (Heliothis spp. is a generalist)Heliothis spp.[89, 99]

Trybliographa rapaeXCabbageDelia radicum[141]

Oomyzus gallerucaeXXUlmus spp.Xanthogaleruca luteola[142]

Orgilus lepidusXXPotatoPhthorimaea operculella[143]

Pauesia pictaXXScots pine (Pinus sylvestris)Cinara pinea[144, 145]